Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
Regulus Therapeutics Inc. (Form: 10-Q, Received: 11/06/2015 08:11:40)
Table of Contents


 
 
 
 
UNITED STATES
SECURITIES AND EXCHANGE COMMISSION
WASHINGTON, D.C. 20549
              _________________________________________________________ 
FORM 10-Q
              __________________________________________________________ 
(Mark One)
x
QUARTERLY REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE QUARTERLY PERIOD ENDED SEPTEMBER 30, 2015
or  
¨
TRANSITION REPORT PURSUANT TO SECTION 13 OR 15(d) OF THE SECURITIES EXCHANGE ACT OF 1934
FOR THE TRANSITION PERIOD FROM                      TO                     
Commission file number: 001-35670
          ___________________________________________________________  
Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
(Exact name of registrant as specified in its charter)
          ___________________________________________________________  
 
Delaware
 
26-4738379
(State or Other Jurisdiction of
Incorporation or Organization)
 
(I.R.S. Employer
Identification No.)
 
 
3545 John Hopkins Ct., Suite 210
San Diego, CA
 
92121
(Address of Principal Executive Offices)
 
(Zip Code)
858-202-6300
(Registrant’s Telephone Number, Including Area Code)
___________________________________________________________
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant (1) has filed all reports required to be filed by Section 13 or 15(d) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934 during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to file such reports), and (2) has been subject to such filing requirements for the past 90 days.    Yes   x     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether the registrant has submitted electronically and posted on its corporate Web site, if any, every Interactive Data File required to be submitted and posted pursuant to Rule 405 of Regulation S-T (§232.405 of this chapter) during the preceding 12 months (or for such shorter period that the registrant was required to submit and post such files).    Yes   x     No   ¨
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a large accelerated filer, an accelerated filer, a non-accelerated filer, or a smaller reporting company. See the definitions of “large accelerated filer”, “accelerated filer”, and “smaller reporting company” in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act.
Large accelerated filer
 
¨
  
Accelerated filer
 
x
Non-accelerated filer
 
¨   (Do not check if a smaller reporting company)
  
Smaller reporting company
 
¨
Indicate by check mark whether registrant is a shell company (as defined in Rule 12b-2 of the Exchange Act).    Yes   ¨     No   ý
As of October 30, 2015 , the registrant had 52,342,653 shares of Common Stock ($0.001 par value) outstanding.
 
 
 
 
 


Table of Contents

REGULUS THERAPEUTICS INC.
TABLE OF CONTENTS
 
 
 
PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION
 
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
 



Table of Contents

PART I. FINANCIAL INFORMATION

ITEMS 1.
FINANCIAL STATEMENTS

Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
CONDENSED BALANCE SHEETS
(in thousands, except share and per share data)
 
September 30,
2015
 
December 31,
2014
 
(Unaudited)
 
 
Assets
 
 
 
Current assets:
 
 
 
Cash and cash equivalents
$
18,324

 
$
37,327

Short-term investments
112,002

 
122,416

Restricted cash
1,400

 

Contract and other receivables
325

 
274

Prepaid and other current assets
4,759

 
4,934

Total current assets
136,810

 
164,951

Property and equipment, net
3,488

 
3,568

Intangibles, net
1,072

 
1,150

Other assets
2,077

 
1,811

Total assets
$
143,447

 
$
171,480

Liabilities and stockholders’ equity
 
 
 
Current liabilities:
 
 
 
Accounts payable
$
3,392

 
$
2,188

Accrued liabilities
7,409

 
4,402

Accrued compensation
1,999

 
2,108

Current portion of deferred revenue
2,009

 
3,097

Convertible note payable, at fair value

 
23,397

Total current liabilities
14,809

 
35,192

Deferred revenue, less current portion
2,083

 
3,252

Other long-term liabilities
693

 
1,022

Total liabilities
17,585

 
39,466

Stockholders’ equity:
 
 
 
Common stock, $0.001 par value; 200,000,000 shares authorized, 52,342,653 and 48,944,530 shares issued and outstanding at September 30, 2015 (unaudited) and December 31, 2014, respectively
52

 
49

Additional paid-in capital
310,233

 
267,929

Accumulated other comprehensive loss
(134
)
 
(197
)
Accumulated deficit
(184,289
)
 
(135,767
)
Total stockholders’ equity
125,862

 
132,014

Total liabilities and stockholders’ equity
$
143,447

 
$
171,480

See accompanying notes to these condensed financial statements.


3

Table of Contents

Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF OPERATIONS AND COMPREHENSIVE LOSS
(In thousands, except share and per share data)
 
 
Three months ended
September 30,
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
 
(Unaudited)
Revenues:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Revenue under strategic alliances and collaborations
$
1,865

 
$
1,083

 
$
9,899

 
$
3,450

Total revenues
1,865

 
1,083

 
9,899

 
3,450

Operating expenses:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Research and development
10,965

 
10,173

 
43,593

 
30,572

General and administrative
4,245

 
2,569

 
13,703

 
8,255

Total operating expenses
15,210

 
12,742

 
57,296

 
38,827

Loss from operations
(13,345
)
 
(11,659
)
 
(47,397
)
 
(35,377
)
Other income (expense):
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Interest and other income
335

 
86

 
686

 
283

Interest expense
(6
)
 
(10
)
 
(22
)
 
(31
)
Gain (loss) from valuation of convertible note payable

 
1,785

 
(1,811
)
 
614

Loss before income taxes
(13,016
)
 
(9,798
)
 
(48,544
)
 
(34,511
)
Income tax benefit (expense)
16

 

 
22

 
(1
)
Net loss
$
(13,000
)
 
$
(9,798
)
 
$
(48,522
)
 
$
(34,512
)
Other comprehensive loss:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Unrealized gain (loss) on short-term investments, net
40

 
(24
)
 
96

 
(50
)
Comprehensive loss
$
(12,960
)
 
$
(9,822
)
 
$
(48,426
)
 
$
(34,562
)
Net loss per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
$
(0.25
)
 
$
(0.23
)
 
$
(0.95
)
 
$
(0.80
)
Diluted
$
(0.25
)
 
$
(0.26
)
 
$
(0.95
)
 
$
(0.80
)
Weighted average shares used to compute net loss per share:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Basic
51,990,460

 
43,406,251

 
51,052,068

 
43,155,601

Diluted
51,990,460

 
44,855,463

 
51,052,068

 
43,155,601

See accompanying notes to these condensed financial statements.


4

Table of Contents

Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
CONDENSED STATEMENTS OF CASH FLOWS
(In thousands)
 
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
(Unaudited)
Operating activities
 
 
 
Net loss
$
(48,522
)
 
$
(34,512
)
Adjustments to reconcile net loss to net cash used in operating activities
 
 
 
Depreciation and amortization expense
1,177

 
1,098

Loss (gain) from valuation of convertible note payable
1,811

 
(614
)
Stock-based compensation
11,607

 
4,710

Amortization of premium on investments, net
1,130

 
1,235

Loss on disposal of long-term assets
73

 
18

Change in operating assets and liabilities:
 
 
 
Contracts and other receivables
(50
)
 
50

Prepaid and other current assets
(91
)
 
(882
)
Accounts payable
1,024

 
1,470

Accrued liabilities
1,649

 
610

Accrued compensation
(109
)
 
147

Deferred revenue
(2,257
)
 
(980
)
Deferred rent and other liabilities
(257
)
 
(203
)
Net cash used in operating activities
(32,815
)
 
(27,853
)
Investing activities
 
 
 
Purchases of short-term investments
(67,064
)
 
(52,268
)
Sales and maturities of short-term investments
76,411

 
63,074

Purchases of property and equipment
(873
)
 
(1,120
)
Acquisition of intangibles
(40
)
 
(53
)
Net cash provided by investing activities
8,434

 
9,633

Financing activities
 
 
 
Proceeds from issuance of common stock, net
492

 
9,853

Proceeds from exercise of common stock options
5,001

 
624

Principal payments on other long-term obligations
(115
)
 
(106
)
Net cash provided by financing activities
5,378

 
10,371

Net decrease in cash and cash equivalents
(19,003
)
 
(7,849
)
Cash and cash equivalents at beginning of period
37,327

 
17,807

Cash and cash equivalents at end of period
$
18,324

 
$
9,958

Supplemental disclosure of cash flow information
 
 
 
Restricted cash received
$
1,400

 
$

Interest paid
$
(22
)
 
$
(30
)
Income taxes paid
$
(1
)
 
$
(1
)
Supplemental disclosure of non-cash investing and financing activities
 
 
 
Amounts accrued for property and equipment, net
$
179

 
$

See accompanying notes to these condensed financial statements.


5

Table of Contents

Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
NOTES TO CONDENSED FINANCIAL STATEMENTS
(Unaudited)
1. Basis of Presentation and Summary of Significant Accounting Policies
Basis of Presentation
The accompanying unaudited condensed financial statements have been prepared in accordance with U.S. generally accepted accounting principles (“GAAP”) for interim financial information and the instructions to Form 10-Q and Article 10 of Regulation S-X. Accordingly, they do not include all of the information and footnotes required by GAAP for complete financial statements. In management’s opinion, the accompanying financial statements reflect all adjustments, consisting of normal recurring adjustments, considered necessary for a fair presentation of the results for the interim periods presented.
Interim financial results are not necessarily indicative of results anticipated for the full year. These unaudited condensed financial statements should be read in conjunction with the Company’s audited financial statements and footnotes included in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014 , from which the balance sheet information herein was derived.
Use of Estimates
Our condensed financial statements are prepared in accordance with GAAP, which requires us to make estimates and assumptions that affect the reported amounts of assets, liabilities, revenues and expenses and the disclosure of contingent assets and liabilities in our financial statements and accompanying notes. An estimated loss contingency is accrued in our financial statements if it is probable that a liability has been incurred and the amount of the loss can be reasonably estimated. Although these estimates are based on our knowledge of current events and actions we may undertake in the future, actual results may ultimately differ from these estimates and assumptions.
Revenue Recognition
Our revenues generally consist of upfront payments for licenses or options to obtain licenses in the future, milestone payments and payments for other research services under strategic alliance and collaboration agreements. We recognize revenues when all four of the following criteria are met: (1) persuasive evidence of an arrangement exists; (2) delivery of the products and/or services has occurred; (3) the selling price is fixed or determinable; and (4) collectability is reasonably assured.
Multiple element arrangements, such as our strategic alliance agreements with Sanofi and AstraZeneca AB (“AstraZeneca”) and our collaboration agreement with Biogen Inc. (“Biogen”), formerly Biogen Idec MA Inc., are analyzed to determine whether the deliverables within the agreement can be separated or whether they must be accounted for as a single unit of accounting. Deliverables under the agreement will be accounted for as separate units of accounting provided that (i) a delivered item has value to the customer on a stand-alone basis; and (ii) if the agreement includes a general right of return relative to the delivered item, delivery or performance of the undelivered item is considered probable and substantially in the control of the vendor. The allocation of consideration amongst the deliverables under the agreement is derived using a “best estimate of selling price” if vendor specific objective evidence and third-party evidence of fair value is not available. If the delivered element does not have stand-alone value, the arrangement is then accounted for as a single unit of accounting, and we recognize the consideration received under the arrangement as revenue on a straight-line basis over our estimated period of performance, which for us is often the expected term of the research and development plan.
Milestones
We apply the milestone method of accounting to recognize revenue from milestone payments when earned, as evidenced by written acknowledgement from the collaborator or other persuasive evidence that the milestone has been achieved and the payment is non-refundable, provided that the milestone event is substantive. A milestone event is defined as an event (i) that can only be achieved based in whole or in part on either our performance or on the occurrence of a specific outcome resulting from our performance; (ii) for which there is substantive uncertainty at the inception of the arrangement that the event will be achieved; and (iii) that would result in additional payments being due to us. Events for which the occurrence is either contingent solely upon the passage of time or the result of a counterparty’s performance are not considered to be milestone events. A milestone event is substantive if all of the following conditions are met: (i) the consideration is commensurate with either our performance to achieve the milestone, or the enhancement of the value to the delivered item(s) as a result of a specific outcome resulting from our performance to achieve the milestone; (ii) the consideration relates solely to past

6


performance; and (iii) the consideration is reasonable relative to all the deliverables and payment terms (including other potential milestone consideration) within the arrangement.
We assess whether a milestone is substantive at the inception of each arrangement. If a milestone is deemed non-substantive, we will account for that milestone payment using a method consistent with the related units of accounting for the arrangement over the related performance period.
Deferred Revenue
Amounts received prior to satisfying the above revenue recognition criteria are recorded as deferred revenue in the accompanying balance sheets. Amounts not expected to be recognized within the next 12 months are classified as non-current deferred revenue.
Stock-Based Compensation
We account for stock-based compensation expense related to stock options granted to employees and members of our board of directors by estimating the fair value of each stock option on the date of grant using the Black-Scholes option pricing model. We recognize stock-based compensation expense using the accelerated multiple-option approach. Under the accelerated multiple-option approach (also known as the graded-vesting method), we recognize compensation expense over the requisite service period for each separately vesting tranche of the award as though the award was in substance multiple awards, resulting in accelerated expense recognition over the vesting period. For performance-based awards granted to employees (i) the fair value of the award is determined on the grant date, (ii) we assess the probability of the individual milestones under the award being achieved and (iii) the fair value of the shares subject to the milestone is expensed over the implicit service period commencing once management believes the performance criteria is probable of being met.
We account for stock options granted to non-employees using the fair value approach. Stock options granted to non-employees are subject to periodic revaluation over their vesting terms.
Fair Value Option
Applicable accounting policies permit entities to choose, at specified election dates, to measure specified items at fair value if the decision about the election is: (1) applied instrument by instrument, (2) irrevocable, and (3) applied to an entire instrument.
In July 2012, we amended and restated the $5.0 million convertible promissory note originally issued in February 2010 to Glaxo Group Limited (“GSK”) (the “2010 GSK Note”), which resulted in a debt extinguishment for accounting purposes. Concurrently with the debt extinguishment, we elected the fair value option for the 2010 GSK Note. The difference between the carrying value of the 2010 GSK Note and the fair value of the amended and restated 2010 GSK Note was recorded as a loss on extinguishment of debt to non-operating earnings. Thereafter, any change to the fair value of the amended note was recorded as gain (loss) from valuation of convertible note payable to non-operating earnings.
The amended and restated 2010 GSK Note provided for a rollover into a new promissory note, effective as of the closing date of a qualifying initial public offering (the “Post-IPO GSK Note”). In October 2012, upon our initial public offering, the Post-IPO GSK Note was established in the principal amount of $5.4 million , which was equivalent to the original principal amount of $5.0 million plus accrued but unpaid interest of approximately $0.4 million . The 2010 GSK Note was simultaneously cancelled and obligations thereunder were terminated. In January 2015, the principal balance of the Post-IPO GSK Note was converted into common stock.
Clinical Trial and Pre-Clinical Study Accruals
We make estimates of our accrued expenses as of each balance sheet date in our financial statements based on the facts and circumstances known to us at that time. Our accrued expenses for pre-clinical studies and clinical trials are based on estimates of costs incurred and fees that may be associated with services provided by clinical trial investigational sites, clinical research organizations (“CROs”) and for other clinical trial-related activities. Payments under certain contracts with such parties depend on factors such as successful enrollment of patients, site initiation and the completion of clinical trial milestones. In accruing for these services, we estimate the time period over which services will be performed and the level of effort to be expended in each period. If possible, we obtain information regarding unbilled services directly from these service providers. However, we may be required to estimate these services based on other information available to us. If we underestimate or overestimate the activities or fees associated with a study or service at a given point in time, adjustments to research and

7


development expenses may be necessary in future periods. Historically, our estimated accrued liabilities have approximated actual expense incurred. Subsequent changes in estimates may result in a material change in our accruals.

Restricted Cash
Restricted cash consists of amounts received for a specific and limited purpose, and therefore not available for general operating activities. In August 2015, we received $1.4 million in connection with our facility lease agreement with Walton Torrey Owner B, L.L.C, entered into in July 2015. The use of these funds are restricted to costs associated with the relocation of our corporate headquarters.
Recent Accounting Pronouncements
In May 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-9, Revenue from Contracts with Customers (“ASU 2014-19”). Adoption of ASU No. 2014-9 requires that an entity recognize revenue to depict the transfer of goods or services to customers in an amount that reflects the consideration to which the entity expects to be entitled in exchange for those goods or services. This update is effective for annual reporting periods beginning after December 15, 2017 and interim periods therein and requires expanded disclosures. We are currently evaluating the impact of adoption on our financial position, results of operations and cash flows.
In August 2014, the FASB issued ASU No. 2014-15, Presentation of Financial Statements Going Concern , which requires management to assess an entity’s ability to continue as a going concern, and to provide related footnote disclosure in certain circumstances. This standard is effective for annual reporting periods ending after December 15, 2016 and interim periods thereafter. Early application is permitted. The adoption of this guidance will have no impact on our financial position, results of operations or cash flows.
2. Net Loss Per Share
Basic net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted average number of common shares outstanding for the period, without consideration for common stock equivalents. Diluted net loss per share is calculated by dividing the net loss by the weighted-average number of common share equivalents outstanding for the period determined using the treasury-stock method. Dilutive common stock equivalents are comprised of options outstanding under our stock option plans and convertible note payable, which was converted into common stock in January 2015.
Applicable accounting standards provide that a contract convertible into common stock that is reported as an asset or liability for accounting purposes may require an adjustment to the numerator of the diluted earnings per share calculation for any changes in income or loss that would result if the contract had been reported as an equity instrument during the period. Securities are assumed to be converted at the beginning of the period, and the resulting common shares are included in the denominator of the diluted earnings per share calculation for the entire period presented. Adding back the gain from the change in valuation of the convertible note payable for the three months ended September 30, 2014 to the numerator and adding the number of shares to be issued upon conversion of the convertible note payable into the denominator of the diluted earnings per share calculation resulted in an increase to the loss per share for the period. The impact of the conversion to the numerator and denominator for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 was anti-dilutive, and therefore was excluded. There is no difference in net loss or the number of shares used to calculate basic and diluted shares outstanding for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 .
The following table summarizes the adjustment to net loss for the diluted net loss per share calculation for the three months ended September 30, 2014 (in thousands):
 
Net loss
$
(9,798
)
Less: gain from change in valuation of note payable
1,785

Net loss used to compute diluted net loss per share
$
(11,583
)
The following table summarizes the adjustment to weighted average shares outstanding for the diluted net loss per share calculation for the three months ended September 30, 2014 (in common equivalent shares):

8


 
Weighted average shares outstanding used for basic net loss per share
43,406,251

Plus: weighted average shares of convertible note payable
1,449,212

Weighted average shares outstanding used for diluted net loss per share
44,855,463

Potentially dilutive securities not included in the calculation of diluted net loss per share because to do so would be anti-dilutive are as follows (in common equivalent shares):
 
 
Three months ended September 30,
 
Nine months ended September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Common stock options
2,269,605

 
1,949,096

 
2,499,389

 
2,313,182

Convertible note payable

 

 

 
1,449,212

Total
2,269,605

 
1,949,096

 
2,499,389

 
3,762,394


3. Investments
We invest our excess cash in commercial paper and debt instruments of financial institutions and corporations. As of September 30, 2015 , our short-term investments had a weighted average maturity of less than two years.
The following tables summarize our short-term investments (in thousands):
 
 
Maturity
(in years)
 
Amortized
cost
 
Unrealized
 
Estimated
fair value
Gains
 
Losses
 
As of September 30, 2015
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate debt securities
2 or less
 
$
93,192

 
$
12

 
$
(81
)
 
$
93,123

Certificates of deposit
2 or less
 
15,080

 

 

 
15,080

Commercial paper
1 or less
 
3,798

 
1

 

 
3,799

Total
 
 
$
112,070

 
$
13

 
$
(81
)
 
$
112,002

 
 
Maturity
(in years)
 
Amortized
cost
 
Unrealized
 
Estimated
fair value
Gains
 
Losses
 
As of December 31, 2014
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Corporate debt securities
2 or less
 
$
105,085

 
$
2

 
$
(167
)
 
$
104,920

Certificates of deposit
2 or less
 
14,600

 

 

 
14,600

Commercial paper
1 or less
 
2,895

 
1

 

 
2,896

Total
 
 
$
122,580

 
$
3

 
$
(167
)
 
$
122,416

4. Fair Value Measurements
We have certain financial assets and liabilities recorded at fair value which have been classified as Level 1, 2, or 3 within the fair value hierarchy as described in the accounting standards for fair value measurements.
Accounting standards define fair value as the exchange price that would be received for an asset or paid to transfer a liability (an exit price) in the principal or most advantageous market for the asset or liability in an orderly transaction between market participants as of the measurement date. Market participants are buyers and sellers in the principal market that are (i) independent, (ii) knowledgeable, (iii) able to transact, and (iv) willing to transact. The accounting standards provide an established hierarchy for inputs used in measuring fair value that maximizes the use of observable inputs and minimizes the use of unobservable inputs by requiring that the most observable inputs be used when available. Observable inputs are inputs that market participants would use in valuing the asset or liability and are developed based on market data obtained from independent sources. Unobservable inputs are inputs that reflect our assumptions about the factors that market participants

9


would use in valuing the asset or liability. The accounting standards prioritize the inputs used in measuring the fair value into the following hierarchy:
 
Level 1 includes financial instruments for which quoted market prices for identical instruments are available in active markets.
Level 2 includes financial instruments for which there are inputs other than quoted prices included within Level 1 that are observable for the instrument such as quoted prices for similar instruments in active markets, quoted prices for identical or similar instruments in markets with insufficient volume or infrequent transactions (less active markets) or model-driven valuations in which significant inputs are observable or can be derived principally from, or corroborated by, observable market data.
Level 3 includes financial instruments for which fair value is derived from valuation techniques in which one or more significant inputs are unobservable, including management’s own assumptions.
The following table presents our fair value hierarchy for assets and liabilities measured at fair value on a recurring basis as of September 30, 2015 and December 31, 2014 (in thousands):
 
 
Fair value as of September 30, 2015
 
Total
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash equivalents
$
16,830

 
$
16,830

 
$

 
$

Corporate debt securities
93,123

 

 
93,123

 

Certificates of deposit
15,080

 

 
15,080

 

Commercial paper
3,799

 

 
3,799

 

 
$
128,832


$
16,830

 
$
112,002

 
$

 
 
Fair value as of December 31, 2014
 
Total
 
Level 1
 
Level 2
 
Level 3
Assets:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Cash equivalents
$
37,072

 
$
37,072

 
$

 
$

Corporate debt securities
104,920

 

 
104,920

 

Certificates of deposit
14,600

 

 
14,600

 

Commercial paper
2,896

 

 
2,896

 

 
$
159,488

 
$
37,072

 
$
122,416

 
$

Liabilities:
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Convertible note payable
$
23,397

 
$

 
$

 
$
23,397

We obtain pricing information from quoted market prices or quotes from brokers/dealers. We generally determine the fair value of our investment securities using standard observable inputs, including reported trades, broker/dealer quotes, bids and/or offers. Refer to Note 3 for information regarding our investments.
The following table presents a reconciliation of the liability measured at fair value using significant unobservable inputs (Level 3) from December 31, 2014 to September 30, 2015 (in thousands):
 
Fair Value Measurements
Using Significant
Unobservable Inputs
(Level 3)
Balance at December 31, 2014
$
23,397

Change in estimated fair value of convertible note payable
1,811

Convertible note converted to shares of common stock
(25,208
)
Balance at September 30, 2015
$

We used an income approach in the form of a convertible bond valuation model to value the convertible note payable. The convertible bond model considered the debt and option characteristics of the note. The key inputs to the model as of

10


December 31, 2014 were volatility of 110% , risk-free rate of 0.10% and credit spread of 9.7% . The volatility inputs were based on historical and implied volatility of peer companies. Peer companies were materially consistent with those used to determine volatility for stock-based compensation. Beginning in 2014, our historical volatility was included with the peer companies for purposes of estimating volatility. As of December 31, 2014 , the volatility input included 60% weighting of our historical volatility and 40% weighting of historical and implied volatility of peer companies. The risk-free rate inputs were based on the yield of US Treasury Strips as of each date. The credit spread inputs were based on an analysis of our creditworthiness and market rates for comparable straight debt instruments. On January 29, 2015, the principal balance of the convertible note payable was converted into 1,356,738 shares of common stock, at a conversion price of $4.00 per share. A final valuation upon conversion at January 29, 2015 was performed, considering only the option characteristics of the note as its conversion was certain. Key inputs of volatility, risk-free rate and credit spread were considered, however, the final valuation was substantially driven by the number of shares of common stock issued upon conversion ( 1,356,738 ) and our stock price on the date of conversion ( $18.58 ). Upon issuance of the common stock, the fair value of the convertible note was classified into stockholders' equity.
We recorded a loss from the change in valuation of the convertible note payable of zero and $1.8 million on the condensed statements of operations and comprehensive loss for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively. We recorded a gain of $1.8 million and $0.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 .
5. Convertible Note Payable
In October 2012, in conjunction with our initial public offering the amended and restated 2010 GSK Note was rolled over into a new promissory note, and the Post-IPO GSK Note was established in the principal amount of $5.4 million , with a maturity date of October 9, 2015 . At December 31, 2014 , the fair value of the Post-IPO GSK Note was $23.4 million and was classified as “Convertible note payable, at fair value” on the condensed balance sheets. On January 29, 2015, the principal amount outstanding under the Post-IPO GSK Note of $5.4 million was converted into 1,356,738 shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $4.00 per share.
6. Stockholders’ Equity
Shares Reserved for Future Issuance
The following shares of common stock were reserved for future issuance as of September 30, 2015 :
 
Common stock options outstanding
5,781,674

Common stock available for future grant
2,177,821

Employee Stock Purchase Plan
1,260,136

Total common shares reserved for future issuance
9,219,631

The following table summarizes our stock option activity under all equity incentive plans for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 (shares in thousands):  
 
Number of
options
 
Weighted
average
exercise
price
Options outstanding at December 31, 2014
6,643

 
$
6.95

Granted
1,776

 
$
11.23

Exercised
(1,984
)
 
$
2.58

Canceled/forfeited/expired
(653
)
 
$
11.28

Options outstanding at September 30, 2015
5,782

 
$
9.27

Stock-Based Compensation
The following table summarizes the weighted average assumptions used to estimate the fair value of stock options and performance stock awards granted to employees under our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan and 2015 Inducement Plan and the shares purchasable under our 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan during the periods presented:

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Three months ended
September 30,
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Stock options
 
 
 
 
 
 
 
Risk-free interest rate
1.7
%
 
2.0
%
 
1.8
%
 
1.9
%
Volatility
78.9
%
 
70.1
%
 
78.8
%
 
73.0
%
Dividend yield

 

 

 

Expected term (years)
6.1

 
6.1

 
6.1

 
6.1

Performance stock options
 
 
 
Risk-free interest rate
1.6
%
 

 
1.8
%
 
2.1
%
Volatility
79.3
%
 

 
76.7
%
 
69.6
%
Dividend yield

 

 

 

Expected term (years)
6.1

 
0

 
6.0

 
6.3

Employee stock purchase plan shares
 
 
 
Risk-free interest rate
0.2
%
 
0.1
%
 
0.1
%
 
0.1
%
Volatility
77.1
%
 
71.3
%
 
75.6
%
 
69.4
%
Dividend yield

 

 

 

Expected term (years)
0.5

 
0.5

 
0.5

 
0.5

The following table summarizes the allocation of our stock-based compensation expense for all stock awards during the periods presented (in thousands):  
 
Three months ended
September 30,
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Research and development
$
1,048

 
$
890

 
$
6,500

 
$
2,548

General and administrative
1,586

 
737

 
5,107

 
2,162

Total
$
2,634

 
$
1,627

 
$
11,607

 
$
4,710

7. Strategic Alliances and Collaborations
The following table summarizes our total revenues from our strategic alliances and collaborations during the periods presented (in thousands):
 
 
Three months ended
September 30,
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
AstraZeneca
$
1,380

 
$
465

 
$
8,028

 
$
1,394

Sanofi
18

 
18

 
54

 
961

GSK

 
144

 

 
433

Biogen
467

 
449

 
1,817

 
622

Other

 
7

 

 
40

Total
$
1,865

 
$
1,083

 
$
9,899

 
$
3,450

AstraZeneca
In August 2012, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement with AstraZeneca. Under the terms of the agreement, we have agreed to collaborate with AstraZeneca to identify, research and develop compounds targeting three micro RNA alliance targets primarily in the fields of cardiovascular diseases, metabolic diseases and oncology. Pursuant to the agreement, we granted AstraZeneca an exclusive, worldwide license to thereafter develop, manufacture and commercialize lead compounds designated by AstraZeneca in the course of the collaboration activities against the alliance targets for all human therapeutic uses. Under the terms of the agreement we are required to use commercially reasonable efforts to perform all

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research, development and manufacturing activities described in the research plan, at our cost, until the acceptance of an investigational new drug application (“IND”) or the end of the research term, which extends until the fourth anniversary of the date of the agreement, and may be extended only by mutual written agreement of us and AstraZeneca. Following the earlier to occur of the acceptance of an IND in a major market or the end of the research term, AstraZeneca will assume all costs, responsibilities and obligations for further development, manufacture and commercialization of alliance product candidates.
Under the terms of the agreement, we received an upfront payment of $3.0 million in October 2012. We determined the elements within the agreement should be treated as a single unit of accounting because the delivered element, the license, does not have stand-alone value. As a result, we are recognizing revenue related to the upfront payment on a straight-line basis over our estimated period of performance, which is four years based on the expected term of the research and development plan.
In March 2015, we earned a $2.5 million preclinical milestone payment upon AstraZeneca’s selection of RG-125, a GalNAc-conjugated anti-miR targeting micro RNA-103/107, as a lead compound under the agreement. If all three targets are successfully developed and commercialized through pre-agreed sales targets, we could receive additional milestone payments of up to $495.5 million , including preclinical milestones of up to $2.5 million upon selection of a lead compound, up to $123.0 million for clinical milestones, and up to $370.0 million for commercialization milestones. In addition, we are entitled to receive royalties based on a percentage of net sales which will range from the mid-single digits to the low end of the 10 to 20% range, depending upon the product and the volume of sales, which royalties may be reduced in certain, limited circumstances.
In January 2015, we entered into a letter agreement with AstraZeneca to amend the collaboration and license agreement. Under the terms of the letter agreement, we have agreed to perform additional miR-103/107 program research and development activities related to RG-125. AstraZeneca has agreed to fund 50% of the costs for these additional activities, as outlined in the letter agreement. In accordance with the collaboration and license agreement, AstraZeneca will fund 100% of the costs for product manufacturing activities outlined in the letter agreement necessary to support a Phase I clinical study. We have recognized $0.9 million and $4.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, for the performance of research and development and product manufacturing activities outlined in the letter agreement. As of September 30, 2015 , deferred revenue from advanced payments associated with the letter agreement was $0.4 million , which we will recognize in the period services are provided.
We have evaluated the contingent event-based payments under our collaboration and license agreement with AstraZeneca and determined that the preclinical payments meet the definition of substantive milestones. Accordingly, revenue for these achievements will be recognized in its entirety in the period when the milestone is achieved and collectability is reasonably assured. Other contingent event-based payments under the agreement for which payment is contingent upon the results of AstraZeneca’s performance will not be accounted for using the milestone method. Such payments will be recognized as revenue over the remaining estimated period of performance, if any, and when collectability is reasonably assured.
Concurrently with the collaboration and license agreement, we entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement (“CSPA”) with AstraZeneca, pursuant to which we agreed to sell to AstraZeneca an aggregate of $25.0 million of our common stock in a private placement concurrently with our initial public offering, at a price per share equal to the initial public offering price. In October 2012, in accordance with the CSPA, we sold AstraZeneca 6,250,000 shares of our common stock at a price per share of $4.00 . Further, the CSPA stipulated that AstraZeneca could not sell, transfer, make any short sale of, or grant any option for the sale of any common stock for a 365 -day period following the effective date of our initial public offering. Accounting standards for multiple element arrangements contains a presumption that separate contracts negotiated and/or entered into at or near the same time with the same entity were negotiated as a package and should be evaluated as a single agreement. We valued the discount applied to the shares of common stock due to the one -year restriction. Based upon restricted stock studies of similar duration and a Black-Scholes valuation to measure a discount for lack of marketability, $4.3 million was attributed to the collaboration and license agreement. We continue to recognize the $4.3 million into revenue ratably over the estimated period of performance of the collaboration. As of September 30, 2015 , deferred revenue associated with the collaboration and license agreement and CSPA was $1.6 million , which we are expecting to recognize over the remaining contractual term and corresponding estimated period of performance of approximately one year .

Sanofi
In July 2012, we amended and restated our collaboration and license agreement with Sanofi to expand the potential therapeutic applications of the micro RNA alliance targets to be developed under such agreement. We determined that the elements within the strategic alliance agreement with Sanofi should be treated as a single unit of accounting because the delivered elements did not have stand-alone value to Sanofi. The following elements were delivered as part of the strategic alliance with Sanofi: (1) a license for up to four micro RNA targets; and (2) a research license under our technology alliance.

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In June 2013, the original research term expired, upon which we and Sanofi entered into an option agreement pursuant to which Sanofi was granted an exclusive right to negotiate the co-development and commercialization of certain of our unencumbered micro RNA programs and we were granted the exclusive right to negotiate with Sanofi for co-development and commercialization of certain miR-21 anti-miRs in oncology and Alport syndrome. In July 2013, we received an upfront payment of $2.5 million , of which $1.25 million is creditable against future amounts payable by Sanofi to us under any future co-development and commercialization agreement we enter pursuant to the option agreement. Revenue associated with the creditable portion of this option payment remained deferred as of September 30, 2015 , and will remain deferred until its application to a creditable transaction. The non-creditable portion of this payment, $1.25 million , was recognized as revenue over the option period from the effective date of the option agreement in June 2013 through the expiration of the option period in January 2014.
In conjunction with the option agreement, we agreed to continue specified research on the miR-21 programs during the option period. We re-evaluated our remaining estimated period of performance from the original research term through the term of the option agreement and amortized the remaining deferred revenue of $10.1 million associated with the initial $25.0 million upfront payment from June 2013 through the expiration of the option period in January 2014.
In February 2014, we and Sanofi entered into a second amended and restated collaboration and license agreement (the “2014 Sanofi Amendment”) to renew our strategic alliance to discover, develop and commercialize micro RNA therapeutics to focus on specific orphan disease and oncology targets. Under the terms of our renewed alliance, Sanofi will have opt-in rights to our preclinical fibrosis program targeting miR-21 for the treatment of Alport syndrome, our preclinical program targeting miR-21 for oncology indications, and our preclinical program targeting miR-221/222 for hepatocellular carcinoma (“HCC”). We are responsible for developing each of these programs to proof-of-concept, at which time Sanofi has an exclusive option on each program. If Sanofi chooses to exercise its option on any of these programs, Sanofi will reimburse us for a significant portion of our preclinical and clinical development costs and will also pay us an option exercise fee for any such program, provided that $1.25 million of the $2.5 million upfront option fee paid to us by Sanofi in connection with the June 2013 option agreement will be creditable against such option exercise fee. In addition, we will be eligible to receive clinical and regulatory milestone payments and potentially commercial milestone payments for these programs. We also continue to be eligible to receive royalties on micro RNA therapeutic products commercialized by Sanofi and will have the right to co-promote these products.
In connection with the 2014 Sanofi Amendment, we entered into a Common Stock Purchase Agreement (the “Purchase Agreement”), pursuant to which we sold 1,303,780 shares of our common stock to Aventisub LLC (formerly Aventis Holdings, Inc.) (“Aventis”), an entity affiliated with Sanofi, in a private placement at a price per share of $7.67 for an aggregate purchase price of $10.0 million . Under the terms of the Purchase Agreement, Aventis was not permitted to sell, transfer, make any short sale of, or grant any option for the sale of any common stock for the 12 -month period following its effective date. The Purchase Agreement and the 2014 Sanofi Amendment were negotiated concurrently and were therefore evaluated as a single agreement. Based upon restricted stock studies of similar duration and a Black-Scholes valuation to measure the discount for lack of marketability, approximately $0.4 million of the proceeds from the Purchase Agreement was attributed to the 2014 Sanofi Amendment, and represents consideration for the value of the program targeting miR-221/222 for HCC. As this element does not have stand-alone value, we are recognizing the $0.4 million allocated consideration into revenue ratably over the estimated period of performance of the miR-221/222 program. As of September 30, 2015 , deferred revenue associated with the Purchase Agreement and the 2014 Sanofi Amendment was $0.3 million , which we are expecting to recognize over the remaining estimated period of performance of approximately four years.
We are eligible to receive milestone payments of up to $101.8 million for proof-of-concept option exercise fees (net of $1.25 million creditable, as noted above), $15.0 million for clinical milestones and up to $300.0 million for regulatory and commercial milestones. In addition, we are entitled to receive royalties based on a percentage of net sales of any products from the miR-21 and miR-221/222 programs which, in the case of sales in the United States, will be in the middle of the 10 to 20% range, and, in the case of sales outside of the United States, will range from the low end to the middle of the 10 to 20% range, depending upon the volume of sales. If we exercise our option to co-promote a product, we will continue to be eligible to receive royalties on net sales of each product in the United States at the same rate, unless we elect to share a portion of Sanofi’s profits from sales of such product in the United States in lieu of royalties.
We have evaluated the contingent event-based payments under the 2014 Sanofi Amendment and determined that the milestone payments meet the definition of substantive milestones. Accordingly, revenue for these achievements will be recognized in their entirety in the period when the milestone is achieved and collectability is reasonably assured. Other contingent event-based payments under the 2014 Sanofi Amendment for which payment is contingent upon the results of Sanofi’s performance will not be accounted for using the milestone method. Such payments will be recognized as revenue over the remaining estimated period of performance, if any, and when collectability is reasonably assured.

14


GSK
In April 2008, we entered into a strategic alliance with GSK to discover, develop and commercialize novel micro RNA-targeted therapeutics to treat inflammatory diseases (the “immuno-inflammatory alliance”). In February 2010, we and GSK expanded the strategic alliance to include hepatitis C virus infection (“HCV”) to discover, develop and commercialize micro RNA therapeutics targeting miR-122 for the treatment of HCV (the “HCV alliance”). In June 2012, we amended our immuno-inflammatory alliance to extend the target selection period for the fourth collaboration target. We determined that the elements within the immuno-inflammatory alliance should be treated as a single unit of accounting because the delivered elements, the opt-in licenses for micro RNA product candidates, did not have stand-alone value to GSK. As a result of the extension of the target selection period, we extended the amortization period for the remaining deferred revenue to approximately eight years , which represented our new estimated period of performance.
In June 2013, the HCV alliance was amended to state that RG-101, and other formulations thereof, will be developed by us independently of our alliance for the treatment of HCV. This amendment removed any further milestone or royalty obligations owed by GSK to us as it relates to RG-101. Concurrently with the amendment, we recorded the remaining $1.1 million in deferred revenue associated with the upfront payment from the HCV alliance, as our estimated period of performance was complete.
In October 2014, we received written notice from GSK of its election to terminate the product development and commercialization agreement. Concurrently with the notice of termination, we recorded the remaining $3.1 million in deferred revenue associated with the upfront payment, as our estimated period of performance was complete. The effective date of the termination was January 15, 2015.
Biogen
In August 2012, we entered into a collaboration and license agreement with Biogen pursuant to which we and Biogen agreed to collaborate on micro RNA biomarkers for multiple sclerosis (“MS”). Under the terms of the agreement, in August 2012 we received an upfront payment of $0.8 million . We were also eligible to receive research milestone payments of up to an aggregate of $1.3 million . We considered the elements within the collaboration and license agreement as a single unit of accounting because the delivered element, the license, did not have stand-alone value. As a result, we recognized revenue relating to the upfront payment of $0.8 million on a straight-line basis over our estimated period of performance, which was approximately two years based on the expected term of the research and development plan.
In June 2013, we amended the collaboration and license agreement to provide for revised terms with respect to the initial phase of the research plan and related milestone payment provisions. The amendment did not modify the maximum dollar amount we were originally eligible to receive in connection with the agreement, or our estimated period of performance. In October 2013 and November 2013, we received research milestone payments totaling $0.3 million under the August 2012 collaboration and license agreement.
In August 2014, we entered into a new collaboration and license agreement with Biogen to collaborate on micro RNA biomarkers for MS and simultaneously executed an agreement terminating the August 2012 collaboration and license agreement. As a result of the termination agreement, we recognized $0.1 million in deferred revenue associated with the upfront payment, as our estimated period of performance was complete. Pursuant to the terms of the August 2014 collaboration and license agreement, we received an upfront payment of $2.0 million . We determined that the elements within the August 2014 collaboration and license agreement were to be treated as a single unit of accounting because the delivered element, the license, did not have stand-alone value to Biogen. As a result, we recognized revenue relating to the upfront payment of $2.0 million on a straight-line basis over the estimated period of performance, which was approximately one year based on the expected term of the research and development plan.
In July 2015, the collaboration and license agreement was amended to modify the conditions of the third research-based milestone. Additionally, the amendment extended the expected research term from 12 months to 14 months . We recognized the remaining upfront payment on a straight-line basis over the amended expected term. As of September 30, 2015 , our period of performance was complete and the deferred revenue balance was zero .

In January 2015, May 2015, and September 2015, we earned research milestone payments under the August 2014 collaboration and license agreement of $0.1 million , $0.3 million and $0.3 million , respectively. We have evaluated the contingent event-based payments under our collaboration and license agreement with Biogen and determined that the research milestone payments met the definition of substantive milestones. Accordingly, revenue for these achievements was recognized in the period the milestones were achieved and collectability was reasonably assured.

15


8. Related Party Transactions
We have entered into several agreements with related parties in the ordinary course of business to license intellectual property and to procure administrative and research and development support services.
In February 2015, we entered into a letter agreement with Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Alnylam") pursuant to which we and Alnylam agreed to the financial terms for certain technology acquired by Alnylam within the licensed patent rights under our Amended and Restated License and Collaboration Agreement (the “Additional Patent Rights”) with Alnylam and Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. ("Isis"). In addition to any royalties payable by us to Alnylam pursuant to the terms of the Amended and Restated License and Collaboration Agreement, we agreed to pay Alnylam an additional low single-digit royalty on net sales of certain products utilizing the Additional Patent Rights, with the exact royalty percentage payable being dependent on the total amount of net sales during the calendar year. We also agreed to pay Alnylam milestone payments on certain products utilizing the additional patent rights of up to $33.0 million per product upon the achievement of certain regulatory milestone events. There was no activity under this agreement for the three or nine months ended September 30, 2015 .
In September 2014, we entered into an agreement with Sanofi-Aventis Deutschland GmbH (“Sanofi Deutschland”), a contract manufacturing subsidiary of Sanofi, for the manufacture of certain drug substance requirements and other services to support our preclinical and clinical activities associated with the RG-012 program. Pursuant to this agreement, we may engage Sanofi Deutschland from time-to-time to manufacture RG-012 drug product on our behalf. Expenses incurred under the Sanofi agreement for services performed or out-of-pocket expenses were zero and $0.4 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively.
9. Subsequent Events
In October 2015, we provided written notice to BMR - John Hopkins Court LLC of our election to exercise our early termination option under our current facility lease. The termination will be effective June 30, 2016. Fees associated with our exercise of this early termination option were not material.
In October 2015, we entered into a Clinical Trial Collaboration and Formulation Development Agreement ("Clinical Trial Collaboration") with GlaxoSmithKline LLC ("GSK LLC") to evaluate the combination of RG-101, our wholly-owned GalNAc-conjugated anti-miR targeting micro RNA-122, and GSK2878175, GSK LLC's non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor in a Phase II clinical study. Under the terms of the Clinical Trial Collaboration, each party will provide drug compound for use in the clinical trial. All other costs of the Phase II clinical study will be incurred by the Company. Concurrently, GSK LLC will work on developing a long-acting parenteral formulation for injection ("LAP") of GSK2878175, which may be used in potential additional clinical trials together with RG-101 following completion of the planned Phase II study. Neither party has any further obligations or commitments beyond the contemplated study under the Clinical Trial Collaboration.
ITEM 2. MANAGEMENT’S DISCUSSION AND ANALYSIS OF FINANCIAL CONDITION AND RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
The interim unaudited condensed financial statements and this Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations should be read in conjunction with the financial statements and notes thereto for the year ended December 31, 2014 and the related Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations, both of which are contained in our Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014, or Annual Report, filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on February 19, 2015. Past operating results are not necessarily indicative of results that may occur in future periods.
FORWARD-LOOKING STATEMENTS
This quarterly report on Form 10-Q and the documents incorporated by reference herein may contain “forward-looking statements” within the meaning of the federal securities laws made pursuant to the safe harbor provisions of the Private Securities Litigation Reform Act of 1995. Our actual results could differ materially from those anticipated in these forward-looking statements as a result of various factors, including those set forth below under Part II, Item 1A, “Risk Factors” in this quarterly report on Form 10-Q. Except as required by law, we assume no obligation to update these forward-looking statements, whether as a result of new information, future events or otherwise. These statements, which represent our current expectations or beliefs concerning various future events, may contain words such as “may,” “will,” “expect,” “anticipate,” “intend,” “plan,” “believe,” “estimate” or other words indicating future results, though not all forward-looking statements necessarily contain these identifying words. Such statements may include, but are not limited to, statements concerning the following:

16

Table of Contents

 
the initiation, cost, timing, progress and results of, and our expected ability to undertake certain activities and accomplish certain goals with respect to our research and development activities, preclinical studies and future clinical trials;
our ability to obtain and maintain regulatory approval of our future product candidates, and any related restrictions, limitations, and/or warnings in the label of an approved product candidate;
our ability to obtain funding for our operations;
our plans to research, develop and commercialize our future product candidates;
our strategic alliance partners’ election to pursue development and commercialization of any programs or future product candidates that are subject to our collaboration and license agreements with such partners;
our ability to attract collaborators with relevant development, regulatory and commercialization expertise;
our ability to obtain and maintain intellectual property protection for our future product candidates;
the size and growth potential of the markets for our future product candidates, and our ability to serve those markets;
our ability to successfully commercialize, and our expectations regarding future therapeutic and commercial potential with respect to our future product candidates;
the rate and degree of market acceptance of our future product candidates;
our ability to develop sales and marketing capabilities, whether alone or with potential future collaborators;
regulatory developments in the United States and foreign countries;
the performance of our third-party suppliers and manufacturers;
the success of competing therapies that are or become available;
the loss of key scientific or management personnel;
our ability to successfully secure and deploy capital;
our ability to satisfy our debt obligations, if any;
our expectations regarding the time during which we will be an emerging growth company under the Jumpstart our Business Startups Act of 2012, or the JOBS Act;
the accuracy of our estimates regarding future expenses, future revenues, capital requirements and need for additional financing; and
the additional risks and other factors described under the caption “Risk Factors” under Part II, Item 1A of this quarterly report on Form 10-Q.
OVERVIEW
We are a biopharmaceutical company focused on discovering and developing first-in-class drugs that target  micro RNAs to treat a broad range of diseases. We were formed in 2007 when Alnylam Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and Isis Pharmaceuticals, Inc. contributed significant intellectual property, know-how and financial and human capital to pursue the development of drugs targeting  micro RNAs pursuant to a license and collaboration agreement. We have established strategic alliances with AstraZeneca AB and Sanofi to discover, develop and commercialize  micro RNA therapeutics. Under these strategic alliances, we are eligible to receive approximately $900.0 million in aggregate milestone payments upon successful commercialization of  micro RNA therapeutics for the programs contemplated by our agreements. These payments include up to $107.8 million upon achievement of preclinical and investigational new drug, or IND, milestones, up to $138.0 million upon achievement of clinical development milestones, up to $180.0 million upon achievement of regulatory milestones and up to $490.0 million upon achievement of commercialization milestones.
micro RNAs are naturally occurring ribonucleic acid, or RNA, molecules that play a critical role in regulating key biological pathways. Scientific research has shown that the improper balance, or dysregulation, of micro RNAs is directly linked to many diseases. To date, approximately 800 micro RNAs have been identified in humans, each of which is believed to interact with a specific set of genes that control key aspects of cell biology. Since most diseases are multi-factorial and involve multiple targets in a pathway, the ability to modulate gene networks by targeting a single micro RNA provides a new therapeutic approach for treating complex diseases.

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RNA plays an essential role in the process used by cells to encode and translate genetic information from DNA to proteins. RNA is comprised of subunits called nucleotides and is synthesized from a DNA template by a process known as transcription. Transcription generates different types of RNA, including messenger RNAs that carry the information for proteins in the sequence of their nucleotides. In contrast, micro RNAs are RNAs that do not code for proteins but rather are responsible for regulating gene expression by affecting the translation of target messenger RNAs. By interacting with many messenger RNAs, a single micro RNA can regulate several genes that are instrumental for the normal function of a biological pathway.
We believe that micro RNA therapeutics have the potential to become a new and major class of drugs with broad therapeutic application for the following reasons:
 
micro RNAs, until recently, have not been a focus of pharmaceutical research;
micro RNAs play a critical role in regulating biological pathways by controlling the translation of many target genes;
micro RNA therapeutics target entire disease pathways which may result in more effective treatment of complex multi-factorial diseases; and
micro RNA therapeutics may be synergistic with other therapies because of their different mechanism of action.
We believe we have assembled the leading position in the  micro RNA field, including expertise in  micro RNA biology and oligonucleotide chemistry, a broad intellectual property estate, relationships with key opinion leaders and a disciplined drug discovery and development process. We refer to these assets as our  micro RNA product platform. We are using our  micro RNA product platform to develop chemically modified, single-stranded oligonucleotides that we call anti-miRs to modulate  micro RNAs and return diseased cells to their healthy state. We believe  micro RNAs may be transformative in the field of drug discovery and that anti-miRs may become a new and major class of drugs with broad therapeutic application, much like small molecules, biologics and monoclonal antibodies. In addition to our  micro RNA product platform, we have established Regulus  micro Markers SM , a division focused on identifying  micro RNAs as biomarkers of human disease to support our therapeutic pipeline, collaborators and strategic partners. Regulus  micro Markers SM  utilizes a clinically-validated, highly reproducible technology platform to identify  micro RNAs as potential biomarkers for disease and we control key intellectual property and know-how related to the division. We believe that  micro RNA biomarkers may be used to select optimal patient segments in clinical trials and to monitor disease progression or relapse. We believe these micro RNA biomarkers can be applied toward drugs that we develop and drugs developed by other companies with which we partner or collaborate. We have formed a research collaboration with Biogen focused on the discovery of micro RNAs as biomarkers for multiple sclerosis and have also entered into an arrangement with another leading, commercial-stage pharmaceutical company to explore micro RNAs as biomarkers for specific patient populations. We also maintain several academic research collaborations focused on the identification of micro RNAs as biomarkers in multiple disease areas.
‘Clinical Map Initiative’ Goals
To advance our micro RNA therapeutics pipeline and biomarkers platform over the next several years, we have outlined specific goals under our ‘Clinical Map Initiative’ strategy. We are developing RG-101 and RG-012, an anti-miR targeting micro RNA-21 for the treatment of Alport syndrome, a life-threatening kidney disease driven by genetic mutations with no approved therapy. We are also advancing several programs toward clinical development in oncology, fibrosis and metabolic diseases, both independently and with our strategic alliance partners AstraZeneca and Sanofi. Under our strategic alliance with AstraZeneca, AstraZeneca recently selected RG-125, a GalNAc-conjugated anti-miR targeting microRNA-103/107 for the treatment of nonalcoholic steatohepatitis, or NASH, in patients with type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes.    
RG-101: In August 2015, we initiated a Phase II study investigating RG-101 in combination with oral direct-acting antiviral agents Harvoni®, Olysio®, and Daklinza® for 28 days. In early 2016, interim data is expected to be reported and sustained viral response data 12 weeks following conclusion of treatment (SVR12) is expected to be reported in the second quarter of 2016. To expand the potential development of RG-101, we recently entered into a clinical trial collaboration and formulation agreement with GSK LLC. In the first quarter of 2016, we plan to initiate a Phase II study evaluating the potential to achieve sustained viral responses post treatment with a single subcutaneous administration of RG-101 in combination with daily oral administrations of GSK2878175, a non-nucleoside NS5B polymerase inhibitor, for up to 12 weeks in treatment-naïve patients chronically infected with HCV genotypes 1 and 3. Concurrently, GSK will work on developing a long-acting parenteral formulation for injection (“LAP”) of GSK2878175 which could improve patient compliance through reduced dosing intervals and potentially extend opportunities for HCV therapeutic intervention.  This LAP formulation of GSK2878175 may be used in potential additional clinical trials together with RG-101 following completion of the planned Phase II study.  Neither us nor GSK has any further obligations or commitments beyond the contemplated study under the clinical trial collaboration agreement.

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RG-012: In June 2015, we initiated a Phase I study to evaluate the safety, tolerability and pharmacokinetics of subcutaneous dosing of RG-012 in healthy volunteers and the study is now complete. 40 healthy volunteer subjects were enrolled in this first-in-human, single ascending dose study. RG-012 was well-tolerated and there were no serious adverse events reported. We also continue to enroll Alport syndrome patients in our global ATHENA natural history of disease study, which is designed to characterize the natural decline of renal function (as measured by established renal markers) in Alport syndrome patients over time. We believe the data from the ATHENA study will provide the clinical basis for the design of a Phase II proof-of-concept study to monitor the therapeutic effect of RG-012 on the decline in renal function in patients with Alport syndrome. In the first half of 2016, we plan to initiate a Phase II proof-of-concept study evaluating the efficacy of RG-012 in Alport syndrome patients.
RG-125: AstraZeneca plans to initiate a Phase I study evaluating RG-125 in humans by the end of 2015.
FINANCIAL OPERATIONS OVERVIEW
Revenue
Our revenues generally consist of upfront payments for licenses or options to obtain licenses in the future, milestone payments and payments for other research services under strategic alliance and collaboration agreements.
In the future, we may generate revenue from a combination of license fees and other upfront payments, payments for research and development services, milestone payments, product sales and royalties in connection with strategic alliances. We expect that any revenue we generate will fluctuate from quarter-to-quarter as a result of the timing of our achievement of preclinical, clinical, regulatory and commercialization milestones, if at all, the timing and amount of payments relating to such milestones and the extent to which any of our products are approved and successfully commercialized by us or our strategic alliance partners. If our strategic alliance partners do not elect or otherwise agree to fund our development costs pursuant to our strategic alliance agreements, or we or our strategic alliance partners fail to develop product candidates in a timely manner or obtain regulatory approval for them, our ability to generate future revenues, and our results of operations and financial position would be adversely affected.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses consist of costs associated with our research activities, including our drug discovery efforts, the development of our therapeutic programs, and our Regulus micro Markers SM division. Our research and development expenses include:
 
employee-related expenses, including salaries, benefits, travel and stock-based compensation expense;
external research and development expenses incurred under arrangements with third parties, such as contract research organizations, or CROs, contract manufacturing organizations, or CMOs, other clinical trial related vendors, consultants and our scientific advisors;
license fees; and
facilities, depreciation and other allocated expenses, which include direct and allocated expenses for rent and maintenance of facilities, depreciation of leasehold improvements and equipment, and laboratory and other supplies.
We expense research and development costs as incurred. We account for nonrefundable advance payments for goods and services that will be used in future research and development activities as expenses when the service has been performed or when the goods have been received.
To date, we have conducted research on many different micro RNAs with the goal of understanding how they function and identifying those that might be targets for therapeutic modulation. At any given time we are working on multiple targets, primarily within our therapeutic areas of focus. Our organization is structured to allow the rapid deployment and shifting of resources to focus on the best known targets based on our ongoing research. As a result, in the early phase of our development programs, our research and development costs are not tied to any specific target. However, we are currently spending the vast majority of our research and development resources on our lead development programs.
Since our conversion to a corporation in January 2009, we have grown from 15 research and development personnel to 64 and have spent a total of approximately $181.7 million in research and development expenses through September 30, 2015 .

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We expect our research and development expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to conduct our ongoing clinical studies, initiate additional clinical studies and advance our pre-clinical research programs toward the clinic, including other IND-enabling activities. The process of conducting clinical trials and pre-clinical studies necessary to obtain regulatory approval is costly and time consuming. We, or our strategic alliance partners, may never succeed in achieving marketing approval for any of our product candidates. The probability of success for each product candidate may be affected by numerous factors, including clinical data, pre-clinical data, competition, manufacturing capability and commercial viability. Under our strategic alliance with Sanofi, we are responsible for the development of product candidates through proof-of-concept, after which time Sanofi would be responsible for the costs of clinical development and commercialization and all related costs, in the event it exercises its option to such program. Under our strategic alliance agreement with AstraZeneca, we are responsible for certain research and development activities with respect to each alliance target under a mutually agreed upon research and development plan until the earlier to occur of acceptance of an IND application (or its foreign equivalent) in a major market or the end of the research term under the agreement. We also have several independent programs for which we are responsible for all of the research and development costs, unless and until we partner any of these programs in the future.
Successful development of future product candidates is highly uncertain and may not result in approved products. Completion dates and completion costs can vary significantly for each future product candidate and are difficult to predict. We anticipate we will make determinations as to which programs to pursue and how much funding to direct to each program on an ongoing basis in response to our ability to maintain or enter into new strategic alliances with respect to each program or potential product candidate, the scientific and clinical success of each future product candidate, as well as ongoing assessments as to each future product candidate’s commercial potential. We will need to raise additional capital and may seek additional strategic alliances in the future in order to advance our various programs.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses consist primarily of salaries and related benefits, including stock-based compensation, related to our executive, finance, legal, business development and support functions. Other general and administrative expenses include allocated facility-related costs not otherwise included in research and development expenses and professional fees for auditing, tax and legal services. We expect that general and administrative expenses will increase in the future as we expand our operating activities and incur additional costs associated with being a publicly-traded company. These increases will likely include legal fees, Sarbanes-Oxley compliance and other accounting fees and directors’ and officers’ liability insurance premiums.
Other income (expense), net
Other income (expense) consists primarily of interest income and expense, and various income or expense items of a non-recurring nature. We earn interest income from interest-bearing accounts and money market funds for cash and cash equivalents and marketable securities, such as interest-bearing bonds, for our short-term investments. Interest expense has historically represented interest payable under the convertible note payable and equipment and tenant improvement financing arrangements. We recorded periodic gains and losses from changes in value of a convertible note payable until its conversion into common stock in January 2015.
CRITICAL ACCOUNTING POLICIES AND ESTIMATES
There have been no significant changes to our critical accounting policies since December 31, 2014 . For a description of critical accounting policies that affect our significant judgments and estimates used in the preparation of our consolidated financial statements, refer to Item 7 in Management’s Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations and Note 1 to our financial statements contained in our most recent Annual Report on Form 10-K for the year ended December 31, 2014 .
RESULTS OF OPERATIONS
Comparison of the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014
The following table summarizes our results of operations for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):

20


 
 
Three months ended
September 30,
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
Revenue under strategic alliances
$
1,865

 
$
1,083

 
$
9,899

 
$
3,450

Research and development expenses
10,965

 
10,173

 
43,593

 
30,572

General and administrative expenses
4,245

 
2,569

 
13,703

 
8,255

Gain (loss) from valuation of convertible note payable

 
1,785

 
(1,811
)
 
614

Revenue under strategic alliances
Our revenues are generated from ongoing strategic alliance and collaborations, and generally consist of upfront payments for licenses or options to obtain licenses in the future, milestone payments and payments for other research services. The following table summarizes our total revenues for the periods indicated (in thousands):
 
 
Three months ended
September 30,
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
2015
 
2014
AstraZeneca
$
1,380

 
$
465

 
$
8,028

 
$
1,394

Sanofi
18

 
18

 
54

 
961

GSK

 
144

 

 
433

Biogen
467

 
449

 
1,817

 
622

Other

 
7

 

 
40

Total revenues under strategic alliances and collaborations
$
1,865

 
$
1,083

 
$
9,899

 
$
3,450

Revenue under strategic alliances was $1.9 million and $9.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to $1.1 million and $3.5 million , respectively, for the same periods in 2014.
Revenue under the AstraZeneca collaboration and license agreement increased to $1.4 million and $8.0 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to $0.5 million and $1.4 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 , respectively. In January 2015, we and AstraZeneca entered into a letter agreement pursuant to which we agreed to perform additional research and development activities and to provide manufacturing support for RG-125. Revenue of $0.9 million and $4.1 million was recognized under the letter agreement for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively. In March 2015, we earned a $2.5 million preclinical milestone payment for the clinical candidate selection of RG-125, a GalNAc-conjugated anti-miR targeting microRNA-103/107 for the treatment of NASH in patients with type 2 diabetes/pre-diabetes.
In February 2014, we and Sanofi entered into a second amended and restated collaboration and license agreement to renew our strategic alliance to discover, develop and commercialize micro RNA therapeutics to focus on specific orphan disease and oncology targets. Revenue recognized from our strategic alliance with Sanofi was less than $0.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to less than $0.1 million and $1.0 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 , respectively. Revenue recognized in these periods reflected the amortization of payments received from Sanofi over our estimated period of performance.
In August 2014, we and Biogen entered into a new collaboration and license agreement to collaborate on micro RNA biomarkers for MS. Revenue recognized from our agreement with Biogen increased to $0.5 million and $1.8 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to $0.4 million and $0.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 , respectively. This increase was primarily a result of amortization of the $2.0 million upfront payment received in August 2014 which was recognized over the estimated period of performance, ending in September 2015. In January 2015, May 2015 and September 2015, we earned research milestone payments under the August 2014 collaboration and license agreement of $0.1 million, $0.3 million, and $0.3 million, respectively.
Revenue recognized from our product development and commercialization agreement with GSK decreased to zero for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, compared to $0.1 million and $0.4 million for the three and nine months

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ended September 30, 2014 , respectively. The product development and commercialization agreement was terminated in January 2015.
As of September 30, 2015 , we had $4.1 million of deferred revenue, which consisted of payments received through our strategic alliances that have not yet been recognized in accordance with our revenue recognition policies.
Research and development expenses
Research and development expenses were $11.0 million and $43.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to $10.2 million and $30.6 million , respectively, for the same periods in 2014. This change was primarily driven by a net increase in our aggregate pre-clinical studies and clinical trial program costs of $1.5 million and $7.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014. Specifically, clinical trial costs for RG-101 increased by $0.8 million and $4.4 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014. This increase was due to costs incurred associated with initiating Phase II studies for RG-101. Pre-clinical study costs for RG-125 increased by $1.0 million and $4.8 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014. This increase was due to costs incurred associated with additional research and development activities and product manufacturing to support the initiation of a Phase I clinical study. This increase was partially offset by a decrease in clinical trial costs for RG-012 of $0.3 million and $1.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014.
Research and development personnel costs, including stock based compensation, increased by $0.1 million and $4.9 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014. This was principally driven by an increase in non-cash stock-based compensation expense of $0.2 million and $4.0 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014. In June 2015, we incurred a non-recurring severance charge of $1.3 million associated with the resignation of our former chief scientific officer, including $0.9 million of non-cash stock-based compensation expense. Other changes in our research and development expenses were attributed to the timing of laboratory supplies usage for the reporting periods. We expect our research and development expenses to increase for the foreseeable future as we continue to conduct our ongoing clinical studies, initiate additional clinical studies and advance our pre-clinical research programs toward the clinic, including other IND-enabling activities.
General and administrative expenses
General and administrative expenses were $4.2 million and $13.7 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to $2.6 million and $8.3 million for the same periods in 2014. This change was primarily driven by an increase in personnel costs, including non-cash stock based compensation, of $1.0 million and $4.3 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014. In June 2015, we incurred a non-recurring severance charge of $3.3 million associated with the resignation of our former chief executive officer in June 2015, including $2.3 million of non-cash stock-based compensation expense. In addition, changes in general and administrative expenses were due to increases in external service costs and other operating expenses associated with general business activities of $0.6 million and $1.1 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015, respectively, compared to the same periods in 2014.
Gain/loss from valuation of convertible note payable
We recorded a loss from changes in value of the convertible note payable of zero and $1.8 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2015 , respectively, compared to a gain of $1.8 million and $0.6 million for the three and nine months ended September 30, 2014 , respectively. Changes in value were driven by changes in our stock price during the respective periods. In January 2015, the convertible note payable was converted into 1,356,738 shares of our common stock at a conversion price of $4.00 per share.
LIQUIDITY AND CAPITAL RESOURCES
Since our inception through September 30, 2015 , we have received $75.0 million principally from upfront payments, research funding and preclinical milestones from our strategic alliances and collaborations, $257.1 million from the sale of our equity and convertible debt securities, including $70.0 million in net proceeds from our initial public offering and concurrent private placement of our common stock in October 2012, $45.8 million in net proceeds from our public offering in July 2013, and $76.3 million in net proceeds from our public offering in November 2014.

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As of September 30, 2015 , we had $131.7 million in cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments, including $1.4 million in restricted cash. The following table shows a summary of our cash flows for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014 (in thousands):
 
 
Nine months ended
September 30,
 
2015
 
2014
 
(unaudited)
Net cash (used in) provided by:
 
 
 
Operating activities
$
(32,815
)
 
$
(27,853
)
Investing activities
8,434

 
9,633

Financing activities
5,378

 
10,371

Total
$
(19,003
)
 
$
(7,849
)
Operating activities
Net cash used in operating activities was $32.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 , compared to $27.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 . The increase in net cash used in operating activities was attributable in part to a net loss of $48.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 compared to a net loss of $34.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 . Adjustments for non-cash charges increased by $9.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 , primarily as a result of a $6.9 million increase in stock-based compensation and a $2.4 million increase associated with the change in value of convertible note payable. Changes in working capital resulted in net cash used in operating activities of $0.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 , compared to net cash provided by operating activities of $0.2 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 .
Investing activities
Net cash provided by investing activities for the periods presented primarily related to the net of purchases, sales and maturities of investments used to fund the day-to-day needs of our business. We invest cash in excess of our immediate operating requirements in such a way that maturity is staggered to optimize our return on investment while satisfying our liquidity needs. As such, for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, net cash provided by investing activities primarily reflects the net sale and maturity of short-term investments, offset by purchases. The net sale and maturities of short-term investments were $9.3 million and $10.8 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. Net cash used for purchases of property and equipment was $0.9 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 , compared to $1.1 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014.
Financing activities
Net cash provided by financing activities was $5.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 , compared to $10.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2014 . The decrease in net cash provided by financing activities was primarily a result of the 2014 Sanofi Amendment and concurrent Common Stock Purchase Agreement with Aventis, which was completed in February 2014, and included a private placement of our common stock with proceeds of $9.6 million, excluding $0.4 million in proceeds from the private placement attributed as consideration for the 2014 Sanofi Amendment. This decrease was partially offset by an increase in proceeds from the exercise of common stock options of $4.4 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 compared to the same period in 2014.
CONTRACTUAL OBLIGATIONS AND COMMITMENTS
As of September 30, 2015, there have been no material changes, outside of the ordinary course of business, in our outstanding contractual obligations from those disclosed within "Management's Discussion and Analysis of Financial Condition and Results of Operations", as contained in our Annual Report, other than the following:
On July 31, 2015, we entered into a lease agreement with Walton Torrey Owner B, L.L.C. for approximately 59,000 square feet of office and laboratory space located at 10614 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California 92121. The lease term is expected to commence in the first half of 2016 and expire 96 months after the commencement date, subject to our option to extend the lease for an additional five years. The initial monthly base rent will be $3.45 per square foot with annual increases of

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approximately 3% per year, provided we will only be charged base rent on 50% of the leased premises for the first 12 months of the lease term.
Off-Balance Sheet Arrangements
As of September 30, 2015 , we did not have any off-balance sheet arrangements.
ITEM 3. QUANTITATIVE AND QUALITATIVE DISCLOSURES ABOUT MARKET RISK
Some of the securities that we invest in have market risk in that a change in prevailing interest rates may cause the principal amount of the marketable securities to fluctuate. Financial instruments that potentially subject us to significant concentrations of credit risk consist primarily of cash, cash equivalents and short-term investments. We invest our excess cash primarily in commercial paper and debt instruments of financial institutions, corporations, U.S. government-sponsored agencies and the U.S. Treasury. The primary objectives of our investment activities are to ensure liquidity and to preserve principal while at the same time maximizing the income we receive from our marketable securities without significantly increasing risk. Additionally, we established guidelines regarding approved investments and maturities of investments, which are designed to maintain safety and liquidity.
Because of the short-term maturities of our cash equivalents and marketable securities, we do not believe that an increase in market rates would have any significant impact on the realized value of our marketable securities. If a 10% change in interest rates were to have occurred on September 30, 2015 , this change would not have had a material effect on the fair value of our investment portfolio as of that date.
ITEM 4. CONTROLS AND PROCEDURES
Disclosure Controls and Procedures
We maintain disclosure controls and procedures that are designed to ensure that information required to be disclosed in our periodic and current reports that we file with the SEC is recorded, processed, summarized and reported within the time periods specified in the SEC’s rules and forms, and that such information is accumulated and communicated to our management, including our chief executive officer and principal financial officer, as appropriate, to allow timely decisions regarding required disclosure. In designing and evaluating the disclosure controls and procedures, management recognizes that any controls and procedures, no matter how well designed and operated, can provide only reasonable and not absolute assurance of achieving the desired control objectives. In reaching a reasonable level of assurance, management is required to apply its judgment in evaluating the cost-benefit relationship of possible controls and procedures. In addition, the design of any system of controls also is based in part upon certain assumptions about the likelihood of future events, and there can be no assurance that any design will succeed in achieving its stated goals under all potential future conditions; over time, controls may become inadequate because of changes in conditions, or the degree of compliance with policies or procedures may deteriorate. Because of the inherent limitations in a cost-effective control system, misstatements due to error or fraud may occur and not be detected.
As of September 30, 2015 , we carried out an evaluation, under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our chief executive officer and our principal financial officer, of the effectiveness of the design and operation of our disclosure controls and procedures, as defined in Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e) under the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended. Based on this evaluation, our chief executive officer and our principal financial officer concluded that our disclosure controls and procedures were effective at the reasonable assurance level as of September 30, 2015 .
Changes in Internal Control Over Financial Reporting
An evaluation was also performed under the supervision and with the participation of our management, including our chief executive officer and our principal financial officer, of any change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our last fiscal quarter and that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting. That evaluation did not identify any change in our internal control over financial reporting that occurred during our latest fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, our internal control over financial reporting.
PART II. OTHER INFORMATION
ITEM 1. LEGAL PROCEEDINGS
None.

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ITEM 1A. RISK FACTORS
You should carefully consider the following risk factors, as well as the other information in this report, before deciding whether to purchase, hold or sell shares of our common stock. The occurrence of any of the following risks could harm our business, financial condition, results of operations and/or growth prospects or cause our actual results to differ materially from those contained in forward-looking statements we have made in this report and those we may make from time to time. You should consider all of the factors described when evaluating our business. The risk factors set forth below that are marked with an asterisk (*) contain changes to the similarly titled risk factors included in Item 1A of our Annual Report. If any of the following risks actually occurs, our business, financial condition, results of operations and future growth prospects would likely be materially and adversely affected. In these circumstances, the market price of our common stock would likely decline.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR FINANCIAL CONDITION AND NEED FOR ADDITIONAL CAPITAL
We have a limited operating history, have incurred significant losses since our inception and anticipate that we will continue to incur significant losses for the foreseeable future. *
We are a biopharmaceutical company, formed in 2007, with a limited operating history. Since inception, our operations have been primarily limited to organizing and staffing our company, acquiring and in-licensing intellectual property rights, developing our micro RNA product platform, undertaking basic research around micro RNA targets and conducting preclinical and clinical studies for our initial programs. We have initiated clinical development of RG-101 and RG-012 however, we have not yet obtained regulatory approval for any product candidates. Consequently, any predictions about our future success or viability, or any evaluation of our business and prospects, may not be accurate.
We have incurred losses in each year since our inception in September 2007. Our net losses were $13.0 million and $9.8 million for the three months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively, and $48.5 million and $34.5 million for the nine months ended September 30, 2015 and 2014, respectively. As of September 30, 2015 , we had an accumulated deficit of $184.3 million .
We have devoted most of our financial resources to research and development, including our preclinical and clinical development activities. To date, we have financed our operations primarily through the sale of equity securities and convertible debt and from revenue received from our strategic alliance partners. We have a strategic alliance with Sanofi relating to the development of our miR-21 programs for HCC and kidney fibrosis and our miR-221/222 program for oncology indications and with AstraZeneca to develop metabolic and oncology programs. Under our agreement with Sanofi, Sanofi has an option to obtain exclusive worldwide licenses for the development, manufacture and commercialization of potential product candidates selected from our programs. If Sanofi exercises its option to obtain a license to develop, manufacture and commercialize any such product candidate, it will assume responsibility for funding and conducting further clinical development and commercialization activities for such product candidate. However, if Sanofi does not exercise its option within the timeframes that we expect, or at all, we will be responsible for funding further development of the applicable product candidate and may not have the resources to do so unless we are able to enter into another strategic alliance for such product candidate. The size of our future net losses will depend, in part, on the rate of future expenditures and our ability to obtain funding through equity or debt financings, strategic alliances or grants. We have initiated clinical development of RG-101 and RG-012, however, it will be several years, if ever, before we have a product candidate ready for commercialization. Even if we or our strategic alliance partners successfully obtain regulatory approval to market a product candidate, our revenues will also depend upon the size of any markets in which our product candidates have received market approval, and our ability to achieve sufficient market acceptance and adequate market share for our products.
We expect to continue to incur significant expenses and increasing operating losses for the foreseeable future. The net losses we incur may fluctuate significantly from quarter to quarter. We anticipate that our expenses will increase substantially if and as we: continue our research and preclinical and clinical development of our product candidates, both independently and under our strategic alliance agreements; seek to identify additional micro RNA targets and product candidates; acquire or in-license other products and technologies; continue with clinical development of our product candidates; seek marketing approvals for our product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials; ultimately establish a sales, marketing and distribution infrastructure to commercialize any products for which we may obtain marketing approval; maintain, expand and protect our intellectual property portfolio; hire additional clinical, regulatory, research and administrative personnel; and create additional infrastructure to support our operations as a public company and our product development and planned future commercialization efforts.
We have never generated any revenue from product sales and may never be profitable.
Our ability to generate revenue and achieve profitability depends on our ability, alone or with strategic alliance partners, to successfully complete the development of, obtain the necessary regulatory approvals for and commercialize product

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candidates. We do not anticipate generating revenues from sales of products for the foreseeable future, if ever. Our ability to generate future revenues from product sales depends heavily on our success in:
 
identifying and validating new micro RNAs as therapeutic targets;
completing our research and preclinical development of product candidates;
initiating and completing clinical trials for product candidates;
seeking and obtaining marketing approvals for product candidates that successfully complete clinical trials;
establishing and maintaining supply and manufacturing relationships with third parties;
launching and commercializing product candidates for which we obtain marketing approval, with an alliance partner or, if launched independently, successfully establishing a sales force, marketing and distribution infrastructure;
maintaining, protecting and expanding our intellectual property portfolio; and
attracting, hiring and retaining qualified personnel.
Because of the numerous risks and uncertainties associated with pharmaceutical product development, we are unable to predict the timing or amount of increased expenses and when we will be able to achieve or maintain profitability, if ever. In addition, our expenses could increase beyond expectations if we are required by the FDA or foreign regulatory agencies to perform studies and trials in addition to those that we currently anticipate.
Even if one or more of the product candidates that we independently develop is approved for commercial sale, we anticipate incurring significant costs associated with commercializing any approved product candidate. Even if we are able to generate revenues from the sale of any approved products, we may not become profitable and may need to obtain additional funding to continue operations.
We may need to raise additional capital, which may not be available on acceptable terms, or at all.
Developing pharmaceutical products, including conducting preclinical studies and clinical trials, is expensive. We expect our research and development expenses to substantially increase in connection with our ongoing activities, particularly as we advance our product candidates towards or through clinical programs. We will need to raise additional capital to support our operations and such funding may not be available to us on acceptable terms, or at all.
As we move our lead compounds through toxicology and other preclinical studies, also referred to as nonclinical studies, required to file an IND, and as we conduct clinical development of RG-101, RG-012 and any other future product candidates, we may have adverse results requiring mitigation strategies that may cause us to consume additional capital. Additionally, our strategic alliance partners may not elect to pursue the development and commercialization of any of our micro RNA product candidates that are subject to their respective strategic alliance agreements with us. Any of these events may increase our development costs more than we expect. We may need to raise additional capital or otherwise obtain funding through additional strategic alliances if we choose to initiate clinical trials for new product candidates other than programs currently partnered. In any event, we will require additional capital to obtain regulatory approval for, and to commercialize, future product candidates.
If we are required to secure additional financing, such additional fundraising efforts may divert our management from our day-to-day activities, which may adversely affect our ability to develop and commercialize future product candidates. In addition, we cannot guarantee that future financing will be available in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, if at all. If we are unable to raise additional capital when required or on acceptable terms, we may be required to:
 
significantly delay, scale back or discontinue the development or commercialization of any future product candidates;
seek strategic alliances for research and development programs at an earlier stage than otherwise would be desirable or on terms that are less favorable than might otherwise be available; or
relinquish or license on unfavorable terms, our rights to technologies or any future product candidates that we otherwise would seek to develop or commercialize ourselves.
If we are required to conduct additional fundraising activities and we are unable to raise additional capital in sufficient amounts or on terms acceptable to us, we will be prevented from pursuing development and commercialization efforts, which will have a material adverse effect on our business, operating results and prospects.

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Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall. *
We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. These sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders. Pursuant to our 2012 Equity Incentive Plan, or the 2012 Plan, our management is authorized to grant stock options and other equity-based awards to our employees, directors and consultants. The number of shares available for future grant under the 2012 Plan will automatically increase each year by up to 4% of all shares of our capital stock outstanding as of December 31 of the preceding calendar year, subject to the ability of our board of directors to take action to reduce the size of the increase in any given year. In addition, we may grant or provide for the grant of rights to purchase shares of our common stock pursuant to our 2012 Employee Stock Purchase Plan, or ESPP. The number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the ESPP will automatically increase on January 1 of each calendar year by the lessor of 1% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year and 500,000 shares, subject to the ability of our board of directors to take action to reduce the size of the increase in any given year. Any such increase, of the maximum amount or a lesser amount, may cause our stockholders to experience additional dilution, which could cause our stock price to fall. Currently, we plan to register the increased number of shares available for issuance under the 2012 Plan and the ESPP each year. In addition, we have adopted an Inducement Plan pursuant to which our management may grant stock options exercisable for up to an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our common stock to new employees as inducements material to such new employees entering into employment with us. The number of shares which may be granted under the Inducement Plan may be increased in the future by our board of directors. In the event we grant options pursuant to our Inducement Plan, our stockholders may experience additional dilution, which could cause our stock price to fall.
RISKS RELATED TO THE DISCOVERY AND DEVELOPMENT OF PRODUCT CANDIDATES
The approach we are taking to discover and develop drugs is novel and may never lead to marketable products.
We have concentrated our therapeutic product research and development efforts on micro RNA technology, and our future success depends on the successful development of this technology and products based on our micro RNA product platform. Neither we nor any other company has received regulatory approval to market therapeutics targeting micro RNAs. The scientific discoveries that form the basis for our efforts to discover and develop product candidates are relatively new. The scientific evidence to support the feasibility of developing product candidates based on these discoveries is both preliminary and limited. If we do not successfully develop and commercialize product candidates based upon our technological approach, we may not become profitable and the value of our common stock may decline.
Further, our focus solely on micro RNA technology for developing drugs as opposed to multiple, more proven technologies for drug development increases the risks associated with the ownership of our common stock. If we are not successful in developing any product candidates using micro RNA technology, we may be required to change the scope and direction of our product development activities. In that case, we may not be able to identify and implement successfully an alternative product development strategy.
We may not be successful in our efforts to identify or discover potential product candidates.
The success of our business depends primarily upon our ability to identify, develop and commercialize micro RNA therapeutics. Our research programs may initially show promise in identifying potential product candidates, yet fail to yield product candidates for clinical development for a number of reasons, including:
 
our research methodology or that of our strategic alliance partners may be unsuccessful in identifying potential product candidates;
potential product candidates may be shown to have harmful side effects or may have other characteristics that may make the products unmarketable or unlikely to receive marketing approval; or
our strategic alliance partners may change their development profiles for potential product candidates or abandon a therapeutic area.                                                            

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If any of these events occur, we may be forced to abandon our development efforts for a program or programs, which would have a material adverse effect on our business and could potentially cause us to cease operations. Research programs to identify new product candidates require substantial technical, financial and human resources. We may focus our efforts and resources on potential programs or product candidates that ultimately prove to be unsuccessful.
Preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates may not be successful. If we are unable to successfully complete preclinical testing and clinical trials of our product candidates or experience significant delays in doing so, our business will be materially harmed.
We have invested a significant portion of our efforts and financial resources in the identification and development of product candidates that target micro RNAs. Our ability to generate product revenues, which we do not expect will occur for many years, if ever, will depend heavily on the successful development and eventual commercialization of our product candidates.
The success of our product candidates will depend on several factors, including the following:
 
successful completion of preclinical studies and clinical trials;
receipt of marketing approvals from applicable regulatory authorities;
obtaining and maintaining patent and trade secret protection for future product candidates;
establishing and maintaining manufacturing relationships with third parties or establishing our own manufacturing capability; and
successfully commercializing our products, if and when approved, whether alone or in collaboration with others.
If we do not achieve one or more of these factors in a timely manner or at all, we could experience significant delays or an inability to successfully complete the development of, or commercialize, our product candidates, which would materially harm our business.
If clinical trials of our product candidates fail to demonstrate safety and efficacy to the satisfaction of regulatory authorities or do not otherwise produce positive results, we may incur additional costs or experience delays in completing, or ultimately be unable to complete, the development and commercialization of our product candidates.
Before obtaining marketing approval from regulatory authorities for the sale of product candidates, we or our strategic alliance partners must conduct extensive clinical trials to demonstrate the safety and efficacy of the product candidates in humans. Clinical testing is expensive, difficult to design and implement, can take many years to complete and is uncertain as to outcome. A failure of one or more clinical trials can occur at any stage of testing. The outcome of preclinical studies and early clinical trials may not be predictive of the success of later clinical trials, and interim results of a clinical trial do not necessarily predict final results. Moreover, preclinical and clinical data are often susceptible to varying interpretations and analyses, and many companies that have believed their product candidates performed satisfactorily in preclinical studies and clinical trials have nonetheless failed to obtain marketing approval for their products.
Events which may result in a delay or unsuccessful completion of clinical development include:
 
delays in reaching an agreement with the FDA or other regulatory authorities on final trial design;
imposition of a clinical hold following an inspection of our clinical trial operations or trial sites by the FDA or other regulatory authorities;
delays in reaching agreement on acceptable terms with prospective CROs and clinical trial sites;
our inability to adhere to clinical trial requirements directly or with third parties such as CROs;
delays in obtaining required institutional review board approval at each clinical trial site;
delays in recruiting suitable patients to participate in a trial;
delays in the testing, validation, manufacturing and delivery of the product candidates to the clinical sites;
delays in having patients complete participation in a trial or return for post-treatment follow-up;
delays caused by patients dropping out of a trial due to product side effects or disease progression;

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clinical sites dropping out of a trial to the detriment of enrollment;
time required to add new clinical sites; or
delays by our contract manufacturers to produce and deliver sufficient supply of clinical trial materials.
If we or our strategic alliance partners are required to conduct additional clinical trials or other testing of any product candidates beyond those that are currently contemplated, are unable to successfully complete clinical trials of any such product candidates or other testing, or if the results of these trials or tests are not positive or are only modestly positive or if there are safety concerns, we or our strategic alliance partners may:
 
be delayed in obtaining marketing approval for our future product candidates;
not obtain marketing approval at all;
obtain approval for indications or patient populations that are not as broad as intended or desired;
obtain approval with labeling that includes significant use or distribution restrictions or safety warnings;
be subject to additional post-marketing testing requirements; or
have the product removed from the market after obtaining marketing approval.
Our product development costs will also increase if we experience delays in testing or marketing approvals. We do not know whether any clinical trials will begin as planned, will need to be restructured or will be completed on schedule, or at all. Significant clinical trial delays also could shorten any periods during which we may have the exclusive right to commercialize our product candidates or allow our competitors to bring products to market before we do, which would impair our ability to successfully commercialize our product candidates and may harm our business and results of operations. Any inability to successfully complete preclinical and clinical development, whether independently or with our strategic alliance partners, could result in additional costs to us or impair our ability to generate revenues from product sales, regulatory and commercialization milestones and royalties.
Any of our product candidates may cause adverse effects or have other properties that could delay or prevent their regulatory approval or limit the scope of any approved label or market acceptance.
Adverse events, or AEs, caused by our product candidates could cause us, other reviewing entities, clinical trial sites or regulatory authorities to interrupt, delay or halt clinical trials and could result in the denial of regulatory approval. Certain oligonucleotide therapeutics have shown injection site reactions and pro-inflammatory effects and may also lead to impairment of kidney or liver function. There is a risk that our future product candidates may induce similar adverse events.
If AEs are observed in any clinical trials of our product candidates, including those that our strategic partners may develop under our alliance agreements, our or our partners’ ability to obtain regulatory approval for product candidates may be negatively impacted.
Further, if any of our future products, if and when approved for commercial sale, cause serious or unexpected side effects, a number of potentially significant negative consequences could result, including:
 
regulatory authorities may withdraw their approval of the product or impose restrictions on its distribution in the form of a modified risk evaluation and mitigation strategy;
regulatory authorities may require the addition of labeling statements, such as warnings or contraindications;
we may be required to change the way the product is administered or conduct additional clinical trials;
we could be sued and held liable for harm caused to patients; or
our reputation may suffer.
Any of these events could prevent us or our partners from achieving or maintaining market acceptance of the affected product and could substantially increase the costs of commercializing our future products and impair our ability to generate revenues from the commercialization of these products either by us or by our strategic alliance partners.

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Even if we complete the necessary preclinical studies and clinical trials, we cannot predict whether or when we will obtain regulatory approval to commercialize a product candidate and we cannot, therefore, predict the timing of any revenue from a future product.
Neither we nor our strategic alliance partners can commercialize a product until the appropriate regulatory authorities, such as the FDA, have reviewed and approved the product candidate. The regulatory agencies may not complete their review processes in a timely manner, or we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval. Additional delays may result if an FDA Advisory Committee recommends restrictions on approval or recommends non-approval. In addition, we or our strategic alliance partners may experience delays or rejections based upon additional government regulation from future legislation or administrative action, or changes in regulatory agency policy during the period of product development, clinical trials and the review process.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval for a product candidate, we will still face extensive regulatory requirements and our products may face future development and regulatory difficulties.
Even if we obtain regulatory approval in the United States, the FDA may still impose significant restrictions on the indicated uses or marketing of our product candidates, or impose ongoing requirements for potentially costly post-approval studies or post-market surveillance. The holder of an approved NDA is obligated to monitor and report AEs and any failure of a product to meet the specifications in the NDA. The holder of an approved NDA must also submit new or supplemental applications and obtain FDA approval for certain changes to the approved product, product labeling or manufacturing process. Advertising and promotional materials must comply with FDA rules and are subject to FDA review, in addition to other potentially applicable federal and state laws.
In addition, drug product manufacturers and their facilities are subject to payment of user fees and continual review and periodic inspections by the FDA and other regulatory authorities for compliance with current good manufacturing practices, or cGMP, and adherence to commitments made in the NDA. If we or a regulatory agency discovers previously unknown problems with a product such as AEs of unanticipated severity or frequency, or problems with the facility where the product is manufactured, a regulatory agency may impose restrictions relative to that product or the manufacturing facility, including requiring recall or withdrawal of the product from the market or suspension of manufacturing.
If we or our partners fail to comply with applicable regulatory requirements following approval of any of our product candidates, a regulatory agency may:
 
issue a warning letter asserting that we are in violation of the law;
seek an injunction or impose civil or criminal penalties or monetary fines;
suspend or withdraw regulatory approval;
suspend any ongoing clinical trials;
refuse to approve a pending NDA or supplements to an NDA submitted by us;
seize product; or
refuse to allow us to enter into supply contracts, including government contracts.
Any government investigation of alleged violations of law could require us to expend significant time and resources in response and could generate negative publicity. The occurrence of any event or penalty described above may inhibit our ability to commercialize our future products and generate revenues.
We may not be successful in obtaining or maintaining necessary rights to micro RNA targets, drug compounds and processes for our development pipeline through acquisitions and in-licenses.
Presently we have rights to the intellectual property, through licenses from third parties and under patents that we own, to modulate only a subset of the known micro RNA targets. Because our programs may involve a range of micro RNA targets, including targets that require the use of proprietary rights held by third parties, the growth of our business will likely depend in part on our ability to acquire, in-license or use these proprietary rights. In addition, our product candidates may require specific formulations to work effectively and efficiently and these rights may be held by others. We may be unable to acquire or in-license any compositions, methods of use, processes or other third-party intellectual property rights from third parties that we identify. The licensing and acquisition of third-party intellectual property rights is a competitive area, and a number of more established companies are also pursuing strategies to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights that we may

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consider attractive. These established companies may have a competitive advantage over us due to their size, cash resources and greater clinical development and commercialization capabilities.
For example, we may collaborate with U.S. and foreign academic institutions to accelerate our preclinical research or development under written agreements with these institutions. Typically, these institutions provide us with an option to negotiate a license to any of the institution’s rights in technology resulting from the collaboration. Regardless of such right of first negotiation for intellectual property, we may be unable to negotiate a license within the specified time frame or under terms that are acceptable to us. If we are unable to do so, the institution may offer the intellectual property rights to other parties, potentially blocking our ability to pursue our program.                                        
In addition, companies that perceive us to be a competitor may be unwilling to assign or license rights to us. We also may be unable to license or acquire third-party intellectual property rights on terms that would allow us to make an appropriate return on our investment. If we are unable to successfully obtain rights to required third-party intellectual property rights, our business, financial condition and prospects for growth could suffer.
We may use our financial and human resources to pursue a particular research program or product candidate and fail to capitalize on programs or product candidates that may be more profitable or for which there is a greater likelihood of success.
Because we have limited financial and human resources, we intend to leverage our existing strategic alliance agreements and enter into new strategic alliance agreements for the development and commercialization of our programs and potential product candidates in indications with potentially large commercial markets such as HCC, fibrosis and HCV, while focusing our internal development resources and any internal sales and marketing organization that we may establish on research programs and product candidates for selected markets, such as orphan diseases. As a result, we may forego or delay pursuit of opportunities with other programs or product candidates or for other indications that later prove to have greater commercial potential. Our resource allocation decisions may cause us to fail to capitalize on viable commercial products or profitable market opportunities. Our spending on research and development programs and product candidates for specific indications may not yield any commercially viable products. If we do not accurately evaluate the commercial potential or target market for a particular product candidate, we may relinquish valuable rights to that product candidate through strategic alliance, licensing or other royalty arrangements in cases in which it would have been more advantageous for us to retain sole development and commercialization rights to such product candidate, or we may allocate internal resources to a product candidate in a therapeutic area in which it would have been more advantageous to enter into a partnering arrangement.
If we fail to comply with environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, we could become subject to fines or penalties or incur costs that could have a material adverse effect on the success of our business.
We are subject to numerous environmental, health and safety laws and regulations, including those governing laboratory procedures and the handling, use, storage, treatment and disposal of hazardous materials and wastes. Our operations involve the use of hazardous and flammable materials, including chemicals and biological materials. Our operations also produce hazardous waste products. We generally contract with third parties for the disposal of these materials and wastes. We cannot eliminate the risk of contamination or injury from these materials. In the event of contamination or injury resulting from our use of hazardous materials, we could be held liable for any resulting damages, and any liability could exceed our resources. We also could incur significant costs associated with civil or criminal fines and penalties.
Although we maintain workers’ compensation insurance to cover us for costs and expenses we may incur due to injuries to our employees resulting from the use of hazardous materials or other work-related injuries, this insurance may not provide adequate coverage against potential liabilities. In addition, we may incur substantial costs in order to comply with current or future environmental, health and safety laws and regulations. These current or future laws and regulations may impair our research, development or production efforts. Failure to comply with these laws and regulations also may result in substantial fines, penalties or other sanctions.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR RELIANCE ON THIRD PARTIES
We will depend upon our strategic alliances for the development and eventual commercialization of certain micro RNA product candidates. If these strategic alliances are unsuccessful or are terminated, we may be unable to commercialize certain product candidates and we may be unable to generate revenues from our development programs.
We are likely to depend upon third party alliance partners for financial and scientific resources for the clinical development and commercialization of certain of our micro RNA product candidates. These strategic alliances will likely

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provide us with limited control over the course of development of a micro RNA product candidate, especially once a candidate has reached the stage of clinical development. For example, in our alliance with Sanofi, Sanofi has the option to obtain an exclusive worldwide license to develop, manufacture and commercialize product candidates upon the achievement of relevant endpoints in clinical trials. However, Sanofi is not under any obligation to exercise these options to progress any of our micro RNA development candidates. While each of AstraZeneca and Sanofi have development obligations with respect to programs that they may elect to pursue under their respective agreements, our ability to ultimately recognize revenue from these relationships will depend upon the ability and willingness of our alliance partners to successfully meet their respective responsibilities under our agreements with them. Our ability to recognize revenues from successful strategic alliances may be impaired by several factors including:
 
an alliance partner may shift its priorities and resources away from our programs due to a change in business strategies, or a merger, acquisition, sale or downsizing of its company or business unit;
an alliance partner may cease development in therapeutic areas which are the subject of our strategic alliances;
an alliance partner may change the success criteria for a particular program or potential product candidate thereby delaying or ceasing development of such program or candidate;
a significant delay in initiation of certain development activities by an alliance partner will also delay payment of milestones tied to such activities, thereby impacting our ability to fund our own activities;
an alliance partner could develop a product that competes, either directly or indirectly, with an alliance product;
an alliance partner with commercialization obligations may not commit sufficient financial or human resources to the marketing, distribution or sale of a product;
an alliance partner with manufacturing responsibilities may encounter regulatory, resource or quality issues and be unable to meet demand requirements;
an alliance partner may exercise its rights under the agreement to terminate a strategic alliance;
a dispute may arise between us and an alliance partner concerning the research, development or commercialization of a program or product candidate resulting in a delay in milestones, royalty payments or termination of a program and possibly resulting in costly litigation or arbitration which may divert management attention and resources; and
an alliance partner may use our proprietary information or intellectual property in such a way as to invite litigation from a third party or fail to maintain or prosecute intellectual property rights such that our rights in such property are jeopardized.
Specifically, with respect to termination rights, Sanofi may terminate the entire alliance or its current alliance target program for any or no reason upon 30 days’ written notice to us. The agreement with Sanofi may also be terminated by either party for material breach by the other party, including a failure to comply with such party’s diligence obligations that remains uncured after 120 days. The agreement with AstraZeneca may be terminated by either party in the event of the other party’s material breach which remains uncured after 40 business days following notice thereof (or 30 business days in the case of nonpayment). In addition, AstraZeneca may terminate the agreement in its entirety for any reason upon 60 business days’ written notice to us. Depending on the timing of any such termination, we may not be entitled to receive the option exercise fees or milestone payments, as these payments terminate with termination of the respective program or agreement.
If any of our alliance partners do not elect to pursue the development and commercialization of our micro RNA development candidates or if they terminate the strategic alliance, then, depending on the event:
 
in the case of Sanofi, under certain circumstances, we may owe Sanofi royalties with respect to product candidates covered by our agreement with Sanofi that we elect to continue to commercialize, depending upon the stage of development at which such product commercialization rights reverted back to us, or additional payments if we license such product candidates to third parties;
the development of our product candidates subject to the AstraZeneca agreement or the Sanofi agreement, as applicable, may be terminated or significantly delayed;
our cash expenditures could increase significantly if it is necessary for us to hire additional employees and allocate scarce resources to the development and commercialization of product candidates that were previously funded, or expected to be funded, by AstraZeneca or Sanofi, as applicable;

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we would bear all of the risks and costs related to the further development and commercialization of product candidates that were previously the subject of the AstraZeneca agreement or the Sanofi agreement, as applicable, including the reimbursement of third parties; and
in order to fund further development and commercialization, we may need to seek out and establish alternative strategic alliances with third-party partners; this may not be possible, or we may not be able to do so on terms which are acceptable to us, in which case it may be necessary for us to limit the size or scope of one or more of our programs or increase our expenditures and seek additional funding by other means.
Any of these events would have a material adverse effect on our results of operations and financial condition.
We rely on third parties to conduct some aspects of our compound formulation, research and preclinical testing, and those third parties may not perform satisfactorily, including failing to meet deadlines for the completion of such formulation, research or testing.
We do not expect to independently conduct all aspects of our drug discovery activities, compound formulation research or preclinical testing of product candidates. We currently rely and expect to continue to rely on third parties to conduct some aspects of our preclinical testing and formulation development.
Any of these third parties may terminate their engagements with us at any time. If we need to enter into alternative arrangements, it would delay our product development activities. Our reliance on these third parties for research and development activities will reduce our control over these activities but will not relieve us of our responsibilities. For example, for product candidates that we develop and commercialize on our own, we will remain responsible for ensuring that each of our IND-enabling studies and clinical trials are conducted in accordance with the study plan and protocols for the trial.
If these third parties do not successfully carry out their contractual duties, meet expected deadlines or conduct our studies in accordance with regulatory requirements or our stated study plans and protocols, we will not be able to complete, or may be delayed in completing, the necessary preclinical studies to enable us or our strategic alliance partners to select viable product candidates for IND submissions and will not be able to, or may be delayed in our efforts to, successfully develop and commercialize such product candidates.
We rely on third-party manufacturers to produce our preclinical and clinical product candidates, and we intend to rely on third parties to produce future clinical supplies of product candidates that we advance into clinical trials and commercial supplies of any approved product candidates.
Reliance on third-party manufacturers entails risks to which we would not be subject if we manufactured the product candidates ourselves, including:
 
the inability to meet any product specifications and quality requirements consistently;
a delay or inability to procure or expand sufficient manufacturing capacity;
manufacturing and product quality issues related to scale-up of manufacturing;
costs and validation of new equipment and facilities required for scale-up;
a failure to comply with cGMP and similar foreign standards;
the inability to negotiate manufacturing or supply agreements with third parties under commercially reasonable terms;
termination or nonrenewal of manufacturing agreements with third parties in a manner or at a time that is costly or damaging to us;
the reliance on a limited number of sources, and in some cases, single sources for raw materials, such that if we are unable to secure a sufficient supply of these product components, we will be unable to manufacture and sell future product candidates in a timely fashion, in sufficient quantities or under acceptable terms;
the lack of qualified backup suppliers for any raw materials that are currently purchased from a single source supplier;
operations of our third-party manufacturers or suppliers could be disrupted by conditions unrelated to our business or operations, including the bankruptcy of the manufacturer or supplier;
carrier disruptions or increased costs that are beyond our control; and
the failure to deliver products under specified storage conditions and in a timely manner.

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Any of these events could lead to clinical study delays or failure to obtain regulatory approval, or impact our ability to successfully commercialize future products. Some of these events could be the basis for FDA action, including injunction, recall, seizure or total or partial suspension of production.
We rely on limited sources of supply for the drug substance of product candidates and any disruption in the chain of supply may cause a delay in developing and commercializing these product candidates.
We have established manufacturing relationships with a limited number of suppliers to manufacture raw materials and the drug substance of any product candidate for which we are responsible for preclinical or clinical development. Each supplier may require licenses to manufacture such components if such processes are not owned by the supplier or in the public domain. As part of any marketing approval, a manufacturer and its processes are required to be qualified by the FDA prior to commercialization. If supply from the approved vendor is interrupted, there could be a significant disruption in commercial supply. An alternative vendor would need to be qualified through an NDA supplement which could result in further delay. The FDA or other regulatory agencies outside of the United States may also require additional studies if a new supplier is relied upon for commercial production. Switching vendors may involve substantial costs and is likely to result in a delay in our desired clinical and commercial timelines.
In addition, if our alliance partners elect to pursue the development and commercialization of certain programs, we will lose control over the manufacturing of the product candidate subject to the agreement. For example, if Sanofi elects to develop and commercialize a product candidate targeting miR-21 or miR-221/222 for oncology indications or RG-012 for kidney fibrosis under its strategic alliance with us, Sanofi will be responsible for the manufacture of the product candidates for further clinical trials. Sanofi will be free to use a manufacturer of its own choosing or manufacture the product candidates in its own manufacturing facilities. In such a case, we will have no control over Sanofi’s processes or supply chains to ensure the timely manufacture and supply of the product candidates. In addition, we will not be able to ensure that the product candidates will be manufactured under the correct conditions to permit the product candidates to be used in such clinical trials. AstraZeneca will have similar obligations to manufacture product candidates which it takes into clinical trials under its strategic alliance with us and we will face similar risks as to those product candidates.
These factors could cause the delay of clinical trials, regulatory submissions, required approvals or commercialization of our product candidates, cause us to incur higher costs and prevent us from commercializing our products successfully. Furthermore, if our suppliers fail to deliver the required commercial quantities of active pharmaceutical ingredients on a timely basis and at commercially reasonable prices, and we are unable to secure one or more replacement suppliers capable of production at a substantially equivalent cost, our clinical trials may be delayed or we could lose potential revenue.
Manufacturing issues may arise that could increase product and regulatory approval costs or delay commercialization.
As we scale-up manufacturing of product candidates and conduct required stability testing, product, packaging, equipment and process-related issues may require refinement or resolution in order to proceed with any clinical trials and obtain regulatory approval for commercial marketing. We may identify significant impurities, which could result in increased scrutiny by the regulatory agencies, delays in clinical programs and regulatory approval, increases in our operating expenses, or failure to obtain or maintain approval for product candidates or any approved products.
We rely on third parties to conduct, supervise and monitor our clinical trials, and if those third parties perform in an unsatisfactory manner, it may harm our business.
We or our strategic alliance partners rely on CROs and clinical trial sites to ensure the proper and timely conduct of our clinical trials. While we will have agreements governing their activities, we and our strategic alliance partners have limited influence over their actual performance. We control only certain aspects of our CROs’ activities. Nevertheless, we or our strategic alliance partners are responsible for ensuring that each of our clinical trials are conducted in accordance with the applicable protocol, legal, regulatory and scientific standards and our reliance on the CROs does not relieve us of our regulatory responsibilities.
We, our alliance partners and our CROs are required to comply with the FDA’s or other regulatory agency’s current good clinical practices, or cGCPs, for conducting, recording and reporting the results of IND-enabling studies and clinical trials to assure that data and reported results are credible and accurate and that the rights, integrity and confidentiality of clinical trial participants are protected. The FDA and other non-U.S. regulatory agencies enforce these cGCPs through periodic inspections of trial sponsors, principal investigators and clinical trial sites. If we or our CROs fail to comply with applicable cGCPs, the clinical data generated in our clinical trials may be deemed unreliable and the FDA may require us to perform additional clinical trials before approving any marketing applications. Upon inspection, the FDA may determine that our clinical trials did

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not comply with cGCPs. In addition, our clinical trials will require a sufficiently large number of test subjects to evaluate the safety and effectiveness of a potential drug product. Accordingly, if our CROs fail to comply with these regulations or fail to recruit a sufficient number of patients, we may be required to repeat such clinical trials, which would delay the regulatory approval process.
Our CROs will not be our employees, and we will not be able to control whether or not they devote sufficient time and resources to our clinical and nonclinical programs. These CROs may also have relationships with other commercial entities, including our competitors, for whom they may also be conducting clinical trials, or other drug development activities which could harm our competitive position. If our CROs do not successfully carry out their contractual duties or obligations, fail to meet expected deadlines, or if the quality or accuracy of the clinical data they obtain is compromised due to the failure to adhere to our clinical protocols or regulatory requirements, or for any other reasons, our clinical trials may be extended, delayed or terminated, and we may not be able to obtain regulatory approval for, or successfully commercialize our product candidates. As a result, our financial results and the commercial prospects for such products and any product candidates that we develop would be harmed, our costs could increase, and our ability to generate revenues could be delayed.                    
We also rely on other third parties to store and distribute drug products for any clinical trials that we may conduct. Any performance failure on the part of our distributors could delay clinical development or marketing approval of our product candidates or commercialization of our products, if approved, producing additional losses and depriving us of potential product revenue.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR INTELLECTUAL PROPERTY
If we are unable to obtain or protect intellectual property rights related to our future products and product candidates, we may not be able to compete effectively in our markets.*
We rely upon a combination of patents, trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect the intellectual property related to our future products and product candidates. The strength of patents in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical field involves complex legal and scientific questions and can be uncertain. The patent applications that we own or in-license may fail to result in patents with claims that cover the products in the United States or in other countries. There is no assurance that all of the potentially relevant prior art relating to our patents and patent applications has been found; such prior art can invalidate a patent or prevent a patent from issuing based on a pending patent application. Even if patents do successfully issue, third parties may challenge their validity, enforceability or scope, which may result in such patents being narrowed or invalidated. Furthermore, even if they are unchallenged, our patents and patent applications may not adequately protect our intellectual property or prevent others from designing around our claims.
If the patent applications we hold or have in-licensed with respect to our programs or product candidates fail to issue or if their breadth or strength of protection is threatened, it could dissuade companies from collaborating with us to develop product candidates, and threaten our ability to commercialize, future products. We cannot offer any assurances about which, if any, patents will issue or whether any issued patents will be found invalid and unenforceable or will be threatened by third parties. A patent may be challenged through one or more of several administrative proceedings including post-grant challenges, re-examination or opposition before the U.S. PTO or foreign patent offices. For example, re-examination of, or oppositions to, patents owned by or licensed to us have previously been initiated, and while we believe these concluded proceedings did not result in a commercially relevant impact on the individual patents, any successful challenge of patents or any other patents owned by or licensed to us could deprive us of rights necessary for the successful commercialization of any product candidates that we or our strategic alliance partners may develop.
Since patent applications in the United States and most other countries are confidential for a period of time after filing, and some remain so until issued, we cannot be certain that we were the first to file any patent application related to a product candidate. Furthermore, in certain situations, if we and one or more third parties have filed patent applications in the United States and claiming the same subject matter, an administrative proceeding, known as an interference, can be initiated to determine which applicant is entitled to the patent on that subject matter. Such an interference proceeding provoked by third parties or brought by us may be necessary to determine the priority of inventions with respect to our patents or patent applications, or those of our alliance partners or licensors. An unfavorable outcome could require us to cease using the related technology or to attempt to license rights to it from the prevailing party. Our business could be harmed if the prevailing party does not offer us a license on commercially reasonable terms. Our defense of a patent or patent application in such a proceeding may not be successful and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees.

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In addition, patents have a limited lifespan. In the United States, the natural expiration of a patent is generally 20 years after it is filed. Various extensions may be available however the life of a patent, and the protection it affords, is limited. Once the patent life has expired for a product, we may be open to competition from generic medications. Further, if we encounter delays in regulatory approvals, the period of time during which we could market a product candidate under patent protection could be reduced.
In addition to the protection afforded by patents, we rely on trade secret protection and confidentiality agreements to protect proprietary know-how that is not patentable, processes for which patents are difficult to enforce and any other elements of our drug discovery and development processes that involve proprietary know-how, information or technology that is not covered by patents. Although each of our employees agrees to assign their inventions to us through an employee inventions agreement, and all of our employees, consultants, advisors and any third parties who have access to our proprietary know-how, information or technology to enter into confidentiality agreements, we cannot provide any assurances that all such agreements have been duly executed or that our trade secrets and other confidential proprietary information will not be disclosed or that competitors will not otherwise gain access to our trade secrets or independently develop substantially equivalent information and techniques. In addition, others may independently discover our trade secrets and proprietary information. For example, the FDA, as part of its Transparency Initiative, is currently considering whether to make additional information publicly available on a routine basis, including information that we may consider to be trade secrets or other proprietary information, and it is not clear at the present time how the FDA’s disclosure policies may change in the future, if at all.
Further, the laws of some foreign countries do not protect proprietary rights to the same extent or in the same manner as the laws of the United States. As a result, we may encounter significant problems in protecting and defending our intellectual property both in the United States and abroad. If we are unable to prevent material disclosure of the non-patented intellectual property related to our technologies to third parties, and there is no guarantee that we will have any such enforceable trade secret protection, we may not be able to establish or maintain a competitive advantage in our market, which could materially adversely affect our business, results of operations and financial condition.
Third-party claims of intellectual property infringement may prevent or delay our development and commercialization efforts.
Our commercial success depends in part on our avoiding infringement of the patents and proprietary rights of third parties. There is a substantial amount of litigation, both within and outside the United States, involving patent and other intellectual property rights in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries, including patent infringement lawsuits. Numerous U.S. and foreign issued patents and pending patent applications, which are owned by third parties, exist in the fields in which we and our strategic alliance partners are pursuing development candidates. For example, we are aware that Santaris Pharma A/S (acquired by Roche) has patents and patent applications in the micro RNA therapeutics space, including patents and patent applications related to targeting micro RNAs, such as miR-122, for the treatment of disease. As the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries expand and more patents are issued, the risk increases that our product candidates may be subject to claims of infringement of the patent rights of third parties.
Third parties may assert that we are employing their proprietary technology without authorization. There may be third-party patents or patent applications with claims to materials, formulations, methods of manufacture or methods for treatment related to the use or manufacture of our product candidates. Because patent applications can take many years to issue, there may be currently pending patent applications which may later result in patents that our product candidates may infringe. In addition, third parties may obtain patents in the future and claim that use of our technologies infringes upon these patents. If any third-party patents were held by a court of competent jurisdiction to cover the manufacturing process of any of our product candidates, any molecules formed during the manufacturing process or any final product itself, the holders of any such patents may be able to block our ability to commercialize such product candidate unless we obtained a license under the applicable patents, or until such patents expire. Similarly, if any third-party patents were held by a court of competent jurisdiction to cover aspects of our formulations, processes for manufacture or methods of use, including combination therapy, the holders of any such patents may be able to block our ability to develop and commercialize the applicable product candidate unless we obtained a license or until such patent expires. In either case, such a license may not be available on commercially reasonable terms or at all.
Parties making claims against us may obtain injunctive or other equitable relief, which could effectively block our ability to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates. Defense of these claims, regardless of their merit, would involve substantial litigation expense and would be a substantial diversion of employee resources from our business. In the event of a successful claim of infringement against us, we may have to pay substantial damages, including treble damages and attorneys’ fees for willful infringement, pay royalties, redesign our infringing products or obtain one or more licenses from third parties, which may be impossible or require substantial time and monetary expenditure.

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If we fail to comply with our obligations in the agreements under which we license intellectual property rights from third parties or otherwise experience disruptions to our business relationships with our licensors, we could lose license rights that are important to our business.
We are a party to a number of intellectual property license agreements that are important to our business and expect to enter into additional license agreements in the future. Our existing license agreements impose, and we expect that future license agreements will impose, various diligence, milestone payment, royalty and other obligations on us. For example, under our exclusive license agreement for Max-Planck-Innovation GmbH’s proprietary technology and know-how covering micro RNA sequences, we are required to use commercially reasonable diligence to develop and commercialize a product and to satisfy specified payment obligations. If we fail to comply with our obligations under our agreement with Max-Planck-Innovation GmbH or our other license agreements, or we are subject to a bankruptcy, the licensor may have the right to terminate the license, in which event we, or our strategic alliance partners, would not be able to market products covered by the license. In addition, our exclusive license agreements with our founding companies, Alnylam and Isis, provide us with rights to nucleotide technologies in the field of micro RNA therapeutics based on oligonucleotides that modulate up-regulated micro RNAs. Some of these technologies, such as intellectual property relating to the chemical modification of oligonucleotides, are relevant to our product candidate development programs. If our license agreements with Alnylam or Isis are terminated, or our business relationships with either of these companies or our other licensors are disrupted by events that may include the acquisition of either company, our access to critical intellectual property rights will be materially and adversely affected.
We may need to obtain licenses from third parties to advance our research or allow commercialization of our product candidates, and we have done so from time to time. We may fail to obtain any of these licenses at a reasonable cost or on reasonable terms, if at all. In that event, we would be unable to further develop and commercialize one or more of our product candidates, which could harm our business significantly. We cannot provide any assurances that third-party patents do not exist which might be enforced against our future products, resulting in either an injunction prohibiting our sales, or, with respect to our sales, an obligation on our part to pay royalties and/or other forms of compensation to third parties.
We may be involved in lawsuits to protect or enforce our patents or the patents of our licensors, which could be expensive, time consuming and unsuccessful.
Competitors may infringe our patents or the patents of our licensors. To counter infringement or unauthorized use, we may be required to file infringement claims, which can be expensive and time-consuming. In addition, in an infringement proceeding, a court may decide that a patent of ours or our licensors is not valid or is unenforceable, or may refuse to stop the other party from using the technology at issue on the grounds that our patents do not cover the technology in question. An adverse result in any litigation or defense proceedings could put one or more of our patents at risk of being invalidated or interpreted narrowly and could put our patent applications at risk of not issuing.
Our defense in a litigation may fail and, even if successful, may result in substantial costs and distract our management and other employees. We may not be able to prevent, alone or with our licensors, misappropriation of our intellectual property rights, particularly in countries where the laws may not protect those rights as fully as in the United States.
Furthermore, because of the substantial amount of discovery required in connection with intellectual property litigation, there is a risk that some of our confidential information could be compromised by disclosure during this type of litigation. There could also be public announcements of the results of hearings, motions or other interim proceedings or developments. If securities analysts or investors perceive these results to be negative, it could have a material adverse effect on the price of our common stock.
We may be subject to claims that our employees, consultants or independent contractors have wrongfully used or disclosed confidential information of third parties.
We employ individuals who were previously employed at other biotechnology or pharmaceutical companies. We may be subject to claims that we or our employees, consultants or independent contractors have inadvertently or otherwise used or disclosed confidential information of our employees’ former employers or other third parties. We may also be subject to claims that former employers or other third parties have an ownership interest in our patents. Litigation may be necessary to defend against these claims. There is no guarantee of success in defending these claims, and if we are successful, litigation could result in substantial cost and be a distraction to our management and other employees.
RISKS RELATED TO COMMERCIALIZATION OF PRODUCT CANDIDATES
The commercial success of our programs that are part of our strategic alliance agreements with Sanofi and AstraZeneca will depend in large part on the development and marketing efforts of our alliance partners. If our alliance partners are unable or unwilling to perform in accordance with the terms of our agreements, our potential to generate future

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revenue from these programs would be significantly reduced and our business would be materially and adversely harmed.
If Sanofi or AstraZeneca elects to pursue the development and commercialization of any of the micro RNA product candidates that are subject to their respective strategic alliance agreements with us, we will have limited influence and/or control over their approaches to development and commercialization. If Sanofi, AstraZeneca or any potential future strategic alliance partners do not perform in the manner that we expect or fail to fulfill their responsibilities in a timely manner, or at all, the clinical development, regulatory approval and commercialization efforts related to product candidates we have licensed to such strategic alliance partners could be delayed or terminated. If we terminate any of our strategic alliances or any program thereunder due to a material breach by Sanofi or AstraZeneca, we have the right to assume the responsibility at our own expense for the development of the applicable micro RNA product candidates. Assuming sole responsibility for further development will increase our expenditures, and may mean we will need to limit the size and scope of one or more of our programs, seek additional funding and/or choose to stop work altogether on one or more of the affected product candidates. This could result in a limited potential to generate future revenue from such micro RNA product candidates and our business could be materially and adversely affected. Further, under certain circumstances, we may owe Sanofi or AstraZeneca, as applicable, royalties on any product candidate that we may successfully commercialize.
We face significant competition from other biotechnology and pharmaceutical companies and our operating results will suffer if we fail to compete effectively.
The biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries are intensely competitive. We have competitors both in the United States and internationally, including major multinational pharmaceutical companies, biotechnology companies and universities and other research institutions. Our competitors may have substantially greater financial, technical and other resources, such as larger research and development staff and experienced marketing and manufacturing organizations. Additional mergers and acquisitions in the biotechnology and pharmaceutical industries may result in even more resources being concentrated in our competitors. Competition may increase further as a result of advances in the commercial applicability of technologies and greater availability of capital for investment in these industries. Our competitors may succeed in developing, acquiring or licensing on an exclusive basis, drug products that are more effective or less costly than any product candidate that we may develop.                                                                
Most of our programs are targeted toward indications for which there are approved products on the market or product candidates in clinical development. We will face competition from other drugs currently approved or that will be approved in the future for the same therapeutic indications. Our ability to compete successfully will depend largely on our ability to leverage our experience in drug discovery and development to:
 
discover and develop therapeutics that are superior to other products in the market;
attract qualified scientific, product development and commercial personnel;
obtain patent and/or other proprietary protection for our micro RNA product platform and future product candidates;
obtain required regulatory approvals; and
successfully collaborate with pharmaceutical companies in the discovery, development and commercialization of new therapeutics.
The availability of our competitors’ products could limit the demand, and the price we are able to charge, for any products that we may develop and commercialize. We will not achieve our business plan if the acceptance of any of these products is inhibited by price competition or the reluctance of physicians to switch from existing drug products to our products, or if physicians switch to other new drug products or choose to reserve our future products for use in limited circumstances. The inability to compete with existing or subsequently introduced drug products would have a material adverse impact on our business, financial condition and prospects.
Established pharmaceutical companies may invest heavily to accelerate discovery and development of novel compounds or to in-license novel compounds that could make our product candidates less competitive. In addition, any new product that competes with an approved product must demonstrate compelling advantages in efficacy, convenience, tolerability and safety in order to overcome price competition and to be commercially successful. Accordingly, our competitors may succeed in obtaining patent protection, receiving FDA approval or discovering, developing and commercializing product candidates before we do, which would have a material adverse impact on our business.

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The commercial success of our product candidates will depend upon the acceptance of these product candidates by the medical community, including physicians, patients and healthcare payors.
The degree of market acceptance of any product candidates will depend on a number of factors, including:
 
demonstration of clinical safety and efficacy compared to other products;
the relative convenience, ease of administration and acceptance by physicians, patients and healthcare payors;
the prevalence and severity of any AEs;
limitations or warnings contained in the FDA-approved label for such products;
availability of alternative treatments;
pricing and cost-effectiveness;
the effectiveness of our or any collaborators’ sales and marketing strategies;
our ability to obtain hospital formulary approval;
our ability to obtain and maintain sufficient third party coverage or reimbursement; and
the willingness of patients to pay out-of-pocket in the absence of third party coverage.
Unless other formulations are developed in the future, we expect our compounds to be formulated in an injectable form. Injectable medications may be disfavored by patients or their physicians in the event drugs which are easy to administer, such as oral medications, are available. If a product is approved, but does not achieve an adequate level of acceptance by physicians, patients and healthcare payors, we may not generate sufficient revenues from such product and we may not become or remain profitable.
If we are unable to establish sales and marketing capabilities or enter into agreements with third parties to market and sell our product candidates, we may be unable to generate any revenues.
We currently do not have an organization for the sales, marketing and distribution of pharmaceutical products and the cost of establishing and maintaining such an organization may exceed the cost-effectiveness of doing so. In order to market any products that may be approved, we must build our sales, marketing, managerial and other non-technical capabilities or make arrangements with third parties to perform these services. For example, we have co-promotion rights with Sanofi with respect to our miR-21 and miR-221/222 programs, but would need to build our sales, marketing, managerial and other non-technical capabilities in order to effectively carry out co-promotion activities with respect to any approved products that are developed through these programs. With respect to certain of our current programs that are the subject of existing strategic alliances, such as the metabolic and oncology programs with AstraZeneca, we intend to rely completely on our alliance partner for sales and marketing. In addition, we intend to enter into strategic alliances with third parties to commercialize other product candidates, including in markets outside of the United States or for other large markets that are beyond our resources. Although we intend to establish a sales organization if we are able to obtain approval to market any product candidates for niche markets in the United States, we will also consider the option to enter into strategic alliances for future product candidates in the United States if commercialization requirements exceed our available resources. This will reduce the revenue generated from the sales of these products.
Our current and future strategic alliance partners, if any, may not dedicate sufficient resources to the commercialization of our product candidates or may otherwise fail in their commercialization due to factors beyond our control. If we are unable to establish effective alliances to enable the sale of our product candidates to healthcare professionals and in geographical regions, including the United States, that will not be covered by our own marketing and sales force, or if our potential future strategic alliance partners do not successfully commercialize the product candidates, our ability to generate revenues from product sales will be adversely affected.
If we are unable to establish adequate sales, marketing and distribution capabilities, whether independently or with third parties, we may not be able to generate sufficient product revenue and may not become profitable. We will be competing with many companies that currently have extensive and well-funded marketing and sales operations. Without an internal team or the support of a third party to perform marketing and sales functions, we may be unable to compete successfully against these more established companies.

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If we obtain approval to commercialize any approved products outside of the United States, a variety of risks associated with international operations could materially adversely affect our business.
Under our strategic alliance agreements with Sanofi and AstraZeneca, they will be responsible for the commercialization of future product candidates, if any, from their respective programs, as applicable. If any other product candidates that we may develop are approved for commercialization, we may also enter into agreements with third parties to market them on a worldwide basis or in more limited geographical regions. We expect that we will be subject to additional risks related to entering into international business relationships, including:
 
different regulatory requirements for drug approvals in foreign countries;
reduced protection for intellectual property rights;
unexpected changes in tariffs, trade barriers and regulatory requirements;
economic weakness, including inflation, or political instability in particular foreign economies and markets;
compliance with tax, employment, immigration and labor laws for employees living or traveling abroad;
foreign taxes, including withholding of payroll taxes;
foreign currency fluctuations, which could result in increased operating expenses and reduced revenues, and other obligations incident to doing business in another country;
workforce uncertainty in countries where labor unrest is more common than in the United States;
production shortages resulting from any events affecting raw material supply or manufacturing capabilities abroad; and
business interruptions resulting from geopolitical actions, including war and terrorism, or natural disasters including earthquakes, typhoons, floods and fires.
Coverage and adequate reimbursement may not be available for our product candidates, which could make it difficult for us to sell products profitably.
Market acceptance and sales of any product candidates that we develop will depend on coverage and reimbursement policies and may be affected by future healthcare reform measures. Government authorities and third party payors, such as private health insurers, hospitals and health maintenance organizations, decide which drugs they will pay for and establish reimbursement levels. We cannot be sure that coverage and adequate reimbursement will be available for any future product candidates. Also, inadequate reimbursement amounts may reduce the demand for, or the price of, our future products. If reimbursement is not available, or is available only at limited levels, we may not be able to successfully commercialize product candidates that we develop.
In addition, we cannot be certain if and when we will obtain formulary approval to allow us to sell any products that we may develop and commercialize into our target markets. Obtaining formulary approval from hospitals and from payers can be an expensive and time consuming process. Failure to obtain timely formulary approval will limit our commercial success.
There have been a number of legislative and regulatory proposals to change the healthcare system in the United States and in some foreign jurisdictions that could affect our ability to sell products profitably. These legislative and/or regulatory changes may negatively impact the reimbursement for drug products, following approval. The availability of numerous generic treatments may also substantially reduce the likelihood of reimbursement for our future products. The potential application of user fees to generic drug products may expedite the approval of additional generic drug treatments. We expect to experience pricing pressures in connection with the sale of any products that we develop, due to the trend toward managed healthcare, the increasing influence of health maintenance organizations and additional legislative changes. If we fail to successfully secure and maintain reimbursement coverage for our future products or are significantly delayed in doing so, we will have difficulty achieving market acceptance of our future products and our business will be harmed.
In addition, in some non-U.S. jurisdictions, the proposed pricing for a drug must be approved before it may be lawfully marketed. The requirements governing drug pricing vary widely from country to country. For example, the EU provides options for its member states to restrict the range of medicinal products for which their national health insurance systems provide reimbursement and to control the prices of medicinal products for human use. A member state may approve a specific price for the medicinal product or it may instead adopt a system of direct or indirect controls on the profitability of the company placing the medicinal product on the market. There can be no assurance that any country that has price controls or reimbursement limitations for pharmaceutical products will allow favorable reimbursement and pricing arrangements for any of our products.

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Historically, products launched in the EU do not follow price structures of the U.S. and generally tend to be priced significantly lower.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR BUSINESS OPERATIONS AND INDUSTRY
Our future success depends on our ability to retain key executives and to attract, retain and motivate qualified personnel.
We are highly dependent on principal members of our executive team, the loss of whose services may adversely impact the achievement of our objectives. While we have entered into employment agreements with each of our executive officers, any of them could leave our employment at any time, as all of our employees are “at will” employees. Recruiting and retaining other qualified employees for our business, including scientific and technical personnel, will also be critical to our success. There is currently a shortage of skilled executives in our industry, which is likely to continue. As a result, competition for skilled personnel is intense and the turnover rate can be high. We may not be able to attract and retain personnel on acceptable terms given the competition among numerous pharmaceutical companies for individuals with similar skill sets. In addition, failure to succeed in preclinical studies and clinical trials may make it more challenging to recruit and retain qualified personnel. The inability to recruit or loss of the services of any executive or key employee might impede the progress of our research, development and commercialization objectives.
We may need to expand our organization and may experience difficulties in managing this growth, which could disrupt our operations.*
As of September 30, 2015 , we had 82 full-time employees. As our company matures, we expect to expand our employee base to increase our managerial, scientific and operational, commercial, financial and other resources and to hire more consultants and contractors. Future growth would impose significant additional responsibilities on our management, including the need to identify, recruit, maintain, motivate and integrate additional employees, consultants and contractors. Also, our management may need to divert a disproportionate amount of its attention away from our day-to-day activities and devote a substantial amount of time to managing these growth activities. We may not be able to effectively manage the expansion of our operations, which may result in weaknesses in our infrastructure, give rise to operational mistakes, loss of business opportunities, loss of employees and reduced productivity among remaining employees. Our expected growth could require significant capital expenditures and may divert financial resources from other projects, such as the development of additional product candidates. We intend to relocate our corporate headquarters and research facility to a new facility in the first half of 2016. If we are unable to transition our technology, personnel and operations in a cost-efficient and timely manner, we may experience disruptions that negatively impact our business, objectives, financial condition and results of operations. Moreover, if our management is unable to effectively manage our growth, our expenses may increase more than expected, our ability to generate and/or grow revenues could be reduced, and we may not be able to implement our business strategy. Our future financial performance and our ability to commercialize product candidates and compete effectively will depend, in part, on our ability to effectively manage any future growth.
Our employees may engage in misconduct or other improper activities, including noncompliance with regulatory standards and requirements and insider trading.
We are exposed to the risk of employee fraud or other misconduct. Misconduct by employees could include intentional failures to comply with the regulations of the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, provide accurate information to the FDA and non-U.S. regulators, comply with healthcare fraud and abuse laws and regulations in the United States and abroad, report financial information or data accurately or disclose unauthorized activities to us. In particular, sales, marketing and business arrangements in the healthcare industry are subject to extensive laws and regulations intended to prevent fraud, misconduct, kickbacks, self-dealing and other abusive practices. These laws and regulations may restrict or prohibit a wide range of pricing, discounting, marketing and promotion, sales commission, customer incentive programs and other business arrangements. Employee misconduct could also involve the improper use of information obtained in the course of clinical trials, which could result in regulatory sanctions and cause serious harm to our reputation. We have adopted a code of conduct, but it is not always possible to identify and deter employee misconduct, and the precautions we take to detect and prevent this activity may not be effective in controlling unknown or unmanaged risks or losses or in protecting us from governmental investigations or other actions or lawsuits stemming from a failure to comply with these laws or regulations. If any such actions are instituted against us, and we are not successful in defending ourselves or asserting our rights, those actions could have a significant impact on our business, including the imposition of significant fines or other sanctions.
Any future relationships with customers and third party payors may be subject, directly or indirectly, to federal and state healthcare fraud and abuse laws, false claims laws and health information privacy and security laws. If we are

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unable to comply, or have not fully complied, with such laws, we could face criminal sanctions, civil penalties, contractual damages, reputational harm and diminished profits and future earnings.
If we obtain FDA approval for any of our product candidates and begin commercializing those products in the United States, our operations may be directly, or indirectly through our customers, subject to various federal and state fraud and abuse laws, including, without limitation, the federal Anti-Kickback Statute and the federal False Claims Act. These laws may impact, among other things, our proposed sales, marketing and education programs. In addition, we may be subject to patient privacy regulation by the federal government and by the U.S. states and foreign jurisdictions in which we conduct our business. The laws that may affect our ability to operate include:
 
the federal Anti-Kickback Statute, which prohibits, among other things, persons from knowingly and willfully soliciting, receiving, offering or paying remuneration, directly or indirectly, to induce, or in return for, either the referral of an individual, or the purchase or recommendation of an item or service for which payment may be made under a federal healthcare program, such as the Medicare and Medicaid programs;
federal civil and criminal false claims laws and civil monetary penalty laws, which prohibit, among other things, individuals or entities from knowingly presenting, or causing to be presented, claims for payment from Medicare, Medicaid, or other third party payers that are false or fraudulent;
the federal Health Insurance Portability and Accountability Act of 1996, or HIPAA, which created new federal criminal statutes that prohibit executing a scheme to defraud any healthcare benefit program and making false statements relating to healthcare matters;
HIPAA, as amended by the Health Information Technology and Clinical Health Act of 2009, or HITECH, and its implementing regulations, which imposes certain requirements relating to the privacy, security and transmission of individually identifiable health information; and
state and foreign law equivalents of each of the above federal laws, such as anti-kickback and false claims laws which may apply to items or services reimbursed by any third party payer, including commercial insurers, and state and foreign laws governing the privacy and security of health information in certain circumstances, many of which differ from each other in significant ways and may not have the same effect, thus complicating compliance efforts.
If our operations are found to be in violation of any of the laws described above or any other governmental regulations that apply to us, we may be subject to penalties, including, without limitation, civil and criminal penalties, damages, fines, possible exclusion from Medicare, Medicaid and other government healthcare programs, and curtailment or restructuring of our operations, any of which could adversely affect our ability to operate our business and our results of operations.
We face potential product liability, and, if successful claims are brought against us, we may incur substantial liability and costs.
The use of our product candidates in clinical trials and the sale of any products for which we obtain marketing approval exposes us to the risk of product liability claims. Product liability claims might be brought against us by consumers, healthcare providers, pharmaceutical companies or others selling or otherwise coming into contact with our products. Certain oligonucleotide therapeutics have shown injection site reactions and pro-inflammatory effects and may also lead to impairment of kidney or liver function. There is a risk that our current and future product candidates may induce similar adverse events. If we cannot successfully defend against product liability claims, we could incur substantial liability and costs. In addition, regardless of merit or eventual outcome, product liability claims may result in:
impairment of our business reputation;
withdrawal of clinical trial participants;
costs due to related litigation;
distraction of management’s attention from our primary business;
substantial monetary awards to patients or other claimants;
the inability to commercialize our product candidates; and
decreased demand for our product candidates, if approved for commercial sale.
We maintain product liability insurance relating to the use of our therapeutics in clinical trials. However, such insurance coverage may not be sufficient to reimburse us for any expenses or losses we may suffer. Moreover, insurance coverage is becoming increasingly expensive and in the future we may not be able to maintain insurance coverage at a reasonable cost or in

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sufficient amounts to protect us against losses due to liability. If and when we obtain marketing approval for product candidates, we intend to expand our insurance coverage to include the sale of commercial products; however, we may be unable to obtain product liability insurance on commercially reasonable terms or in adequate amounts. On occasion, large judgments have been awarded in class action lawsuits based on drugs that had unanticipated adverse effects. A successful product liability claim or series of claims brought against us could cause our stock price to decline and, if judgments exceed our insurance coverage, could adversely affect our results of operations and business.
Cyber security risks and the failure to maintain the confidentiality, integrity, and availability of our computer hardware, software, and Internet applications and related tools and functions could result in damage to our reputation and/or subject us to costs, fines or lawsuits.
Our business requires manipulating, analyzing and storing large amounts of data. In addition, we rely on a global enterprise software system to operate and manage our business. We also maintain personally identifiable information about our employees. Our business therefore depends on the continuous, effective, reliable, and secure operation of our computer hardware, software, networks, Internet servers, and related infrastructure. To the extent that our hardware or software malfunctions or access to our data by internal research personnel is interrupted, our business could suffer. The integrity and protection of our employee and company data is critical to our business and employees have a high expectation that we will adequately protect their personal information. The regulatory environment governing information, security and privacy laws is increasingly demanding and continues to evolve. Maintaining compliance with applicable security and privacy regulations may increase our operating costs. Although our computer and communications hardware is protected through physical and software safeguards, it is still vulnerable to fire, storm, flood, power loss, earthquakes, telecommunications failures, physical or software break-ins, software viruses, and similar events. These events could lead to the unauthorized access, disclosure and use of non-public information. The techniques used by criminal elements to attack computer systems are sophisticated, change frequently and may originate from less regulated and remote areas of the world. As a result, we may not be able to address these techniques proactively or implement adequate preventative measures. If our computer systems are compromised, we could be subject to fines, damages, litigation and enforcement actions, and we could lose trade secrets, the occurrence of which could harm our business. In addition, any sustained disruption in internet access provided by other companies could harm our business.
Business interruptions could delay us in the process of developing our future products.
Our headquarters are located in San Diego County. We are vulnerable to natural disasters such as earthquakes and wild fires, as well as other events that could disrupt our operations. We do not carry insurance for earthquakes or other natural disasters and we may not carry sufficient business interruption insurance to compensate us for losses that may occur. Any losses or damages we incur could have a material adverse effect on our business operations.
RISKS RELATED TO OUR COMMON STOCK
The market price of our common stock may be highly volatile.*
Since shares of our common stock were sold in our initial public offering in October 2012 at a price of $4.00 per share, our closing stock price as reported on The NASDAQ Global Market has ranged from $4.15 to $22.08, through October 30, 2015 . The trading price of our common stock is likely to continue to be volatile.
Our stock price could be subject to wide fluctuations in response to a variety of factors, including the following:
adverse results or delays in preclinical testing or clinical trials;
inability to obtain additional funding;
any delay in filing an IND or NDA for any of our product candidates and any adverse development or perceived adverse development with respect to the FDA’s review of that IND or NDA;
failure to maintain our existing strategic alliances or enter into new alliances;
failure of our strategic alliance partners to elect to develop and commercialize product candidates under our alliance agreements or the termination of any programs under our alliance agreements;
failure by us or our licensors and strategic alliance partners to prosecute, maintain or enforce our intellectual property rights;
failure to successfully develop and commercialize our product candidates;

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changes in laws or regulations applicable to our preclinical and clinical development activities, product candidates or future products;
inability to obtain adequate product supply for our product candidates or the inability to do so at acceptable prices;
adverse regulatory decisions;
introduction of new products, services or technologies by our competitors;
failure to meet or exceed financial projections we may provide to the public;
failure to meet or exceed the estimates and projections of the investment community;
the perception of the pharmaceutical industry by the public, legislatures, regulators and the investment community;
announcements of significant acquisitions, strategic partnerships, joint ventures or capital commitments by us, our strategic alliance partners or our competitors;
disputes or other developments relating to proprietary rights, including patents, litigation matters and our ability to obtain patent protection for our technologies;
additions or departures of key scientific or management personnel;
significant lawsuits, including patent or stockholder litigation;
changes in the market valuations of similar companies;
sales of our common stock by us or our stockholders in the future; and
trading volume of our common stock.
In addition, companies trading in the stock market in general, and The NASDAQ Global Market in particular, have experienced extreme price and volume fluctuations that have often been unrelated or disproportionate to the operating performance of these companies. Broad market and industry factors may negatively affect the market price of our common stock, regardless of our actual operating performance.
Our principal stockholders and management beneficially own a majority of our stock and will be able to exert significant control over matters subject to stockholder approval. *
As of October 30, 2015 , our executive officers, directors, 5% stockholders and their affiliates beneficially owned a majority of our outstanding voting stock. Therefore, these stockholders will have the ability to influence us through this ownership position. These stockholders may be able to determine all matters requiring stockholder approval. For example, these stockholders, acting together, may be able to control elections of directors, amendments of our organizational documents, or approval of any merger, sale of assets, or other major corporate transaction. This may prevent or discourage unsolicited acquisition proposals or offers for our common stock that you may believe are in your best interest as one of our stockholders.
We are an “emerging growth company,” and the reduced reporting requirements applicable to emerging growth companies could make our common stock less attractive to investors. *
We are currently an “emerging growth company,” as defined in the JOBS Act. As an emerging growth company, we may take advantage of exemptions from various reporting requirements that are applicable to other public companies that are not “emerging growth companies,” including not being required to comply with the auditor attestation requirements of Section 404 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, or the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, reduced disclosure obligations regarding executive compensation in our periodic reports and proxy statements and exemptions from the requirements of holding a nonbinding advisory vote on executive compensation and stockholder approval of any golden parachute payments not previously approved. We could be an emerging growth company through December 31, 2017, although we may lose that status sooner. We cannot predict if investors will find our common stock less attractive because we may rely on these exemptions. If some investors find our common stock less attractive as a result, there may be a less active trading market for our common stock and our stock price may be more volatile.
Under the JOBS Act, emerging growth companies can also delay adopting new or revised accounting standards until such time as those standards apply to private companies. We have irrevocably elected not to avail ourselves of this exemption from new or revised accounting standards and, therefore, will be subject to the same new or revised accounting standards as other public companies that are not emerging growth companies.

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The requirements of being a public company may strain our resources and divert management’s attention.
As a public company, we have incurred, and will continue to incur, significant legal, accounting and other expenses that we did not incur as a private company. In addition, the Sarbanes-Oxley Act, as well as rules subsequently implemented by the SEC and The NASDAQ Global Market have imposed various requirements on public companies. In July 2010, the Dodd-Frank Wall Street Reform and Consumer Protection Act, or the Dodd-Frank Act, was enacted. There are significant corporate governance and executive compensation related provisions in the Dodd-Frank Act that require the SEC to adopt additional rules and regulations in these areas such as “say on pay” and proxy access. As an “emerging growth company” we are permitted to implement many of these requirements over a longer period and up to five years from the pricing of our initial public offering. We have taken advantage of this new legislation but cannot guarantee that we will not be required to implement these requirements sooner than budgeted or planned and thereby incur unexpected expenses. Stockholder activism, the current political environment and the current high level of government intervention and regulatory reform may lead to substantial new regulations and disclosure obligations, which may lead to additional compliance costs and impact the manner in which we operate our business in ways we cannot currently anticipate. Our management and other personnel will need to devote a substantial amount of time to these compliance initiatives. Moreover, these rules and regulations will increase our legal and financial compliance costs and will make some activities more time-consuming and costly. For example, we expect these rules and regulations to make it more difficult and more expensive for us to obtain director and officer liability insurance and we may be required to incur substantial costs to maintain our current levels of such coverage.
Sales of a substantial number of shares of our common stock in the public market by our existing stockholders could cause our stock price to fall.*
If our existing stockholders sell, or indicate an intention to sell, substantial amounts of our common stock in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline. In addition, shares of common stock that are either subject to outstanding options or reserved for future issuance under our employee benefit plans are or may become eligible for sale in the public market to the extent permitted by the provisions of various vesting schedules and Rule 144 under the Securities Act. If these additional shares of common stock are sold, or if it is perceived that they will be sold, in the public market, the trading price of our common stock could decline.
Certain holders of our securities are entitled to rights with respect to the registration of their shares under the Securities Act. Registration of these shares under the Securities Act would result in the shares becoming freely tradable without restriction under the Securities Act, except for shares held by our affiliates as defined in Rule 144 under the Securities Act. Pursuant to our registration statements on Form S-3 which became effective in April 2014 and in April 2015, up to 7,190,422 shares held by certain of our stockholders remain available for resale thereunder. We may file additional registration statements in the future to provide for the further sale of shares of common stock by our stockholders. Any further sales of securities by these stockholders could have a material adverse effect on the trading price of our common stock.
Future sales and issuances of our common stock or rights to purchase common stock, including pursuant to our equity incentive plans, could result in additional dilution of the percentage ownership of our stockholders and could cause our stock price to fall. *
We expect that significant additional capital will be needed in the future to continue our planned operations. To the extent we raise additional capital by issuing equity securities, our stockholders may experience substantial dilution. We may sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in one or more transactions at prices and in a manner we determine from time to time. Pursuant to our registration statement on Form S-3 that became effective on April 16, 2014, we may sell up to $18.2 million of common stock or warrants from time to time in one or more public offerings. On April 8, 2015, we filed a shelf registration statement on Form S-3, which became effective upon filing due to our status as a well-known, seasoned issuer (“WKSI”). Under the shelf registration statement, we may offer to sell from time to time in one or more offerings shares of our common stock. Except as limited by the number of shares authorized under our certificate of incorporation and available for future issuance, no limit exists on the aggregate number of shares of common stock we may sell pursuant to the registration statement. If we sell common stock, convertible securities or other equity securities in more than one transaction, investors may be materially diluted by subsequent sales. These sales may also result in material dilution to our existing stockholders, and new investors could gain rights superior to our existing stockholders. In addition, we may file additional registration statements in the future to provide for the further sale of shares of common stock by us or by selling stockholders.
Pursuant to our 2012 Plan, our management is authorized to grant stock options and other equity-based awards to our employees, directors and consultants. The number of shares available for future grant under the 2012 Plan will automatically increase each year by up to 4% of all shares of our capital stock outstanding as of December 31 of the preceding calendar year,

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subject to the ability of our board of directors to take action to reduce the size of the increase in any given year. In addition, we may grant or provide for the grant of rights to purchase shares of our common stock pursuant to the ESPP. The number of shares of our common stock reserved for issuance under the ESPP will automatically increase on January 1 of each calendar year by the lessor of 1% of the total number of shares of our common stock outstanding on December 31 of the preceding calendar year and 500,000 shares, subject to the ability of our board of directors to take action to reduce the size of the increase in any given year. Currently, we plan to register the increased number of shares available for issuance under the 2012 Plan and ESPP each year. In addition, pursuant to our Inducement Plan, our management is authorized to grant stock options exercisable for up to an aggregate of 1,000,000 shares of our common stock to new employees as inducements material to such new employees entering into employment with us. The number of shares which may be granted under the Inducement Plan may be increased in the future by our board of directors.
We could be subject to securities class action litigation.
In the past, securities class action litigation has often been brought against a company following a decline in the market price of its securities. This risk is especially relevant for us because pharmaceutical companies have experienced significant stock price volatility in recent years. If we face such litigation, it could result in substantial costs and a diversion of management’s attention and resources, which could harm our business.
Our ability to use our net operating loss carryforwards and certain other tax attributes may be limited.
Under Section 382 of the Internal Revenue Code of 1986, as amended, if a corporation undergoes an “ownership change,” generally defined as a greater than 50% change (by value) in its equity ownership over a three year period, the corporation’s ability to use its pre-change net operating loss carryforwards, or NOLs, and other pre-change tax attributes (such as research tax credits) to offset its post-change income may be limited. We triggered an “ownership change” limitation at the completion of our initial public offering in October 2012. We may also experience ownership changes in the future as a result of subsequent shifts in our stock ownership. As a result, if we earn net taxable income, our ability to use our pre-change net operating loss carryforwards to offset U.S. federal taxable income may be subject to limitations, which could potentially result in increased future tax liability to us. In addition, at the state level, there may be periods during which the use of NOLs is suspended or otherwise limited, which could accelerate or permanently increase state taxes owed.
We do not intend to pay dividends on our common stock so any returns will be limited to the value of our stock.
We have never declared or paid any cash dividends on our common stock. We currently anticipate that we will retain future earnings for the development, operation and expansion of our business and do not anticipate declaring or paying any cash dividends for the foreseeable future. Any return to stockholders will therefore be limited to the appreciation of their stock.
Provisions in our amended and restated certificate of incorporation and bylaws, as well as provisions of Delaware law, could make it more difficult for a third party to acquire us or increase the cost of acquiring us, even if doing so would benefit our stockholders or remove our current management.
Some provisions of our charter documents and Delaware law may have anti-takeover effects that could discourage an acquisition of us by others, even if an acquisition would be beneficial to our stockholders and may prevent attempts by our stockholders to replace or remove our current management. These provisions include:
 
authorizing the issuance of “blank check” preferred stock, the terms of which may be established and shares of which may be issued without stockholder approval;
limiting the removal of directors by the stockholders;
prohibiting stockholder action by written consent, thereby requiring all stockholder actions to be taken at a meeting of our stockholders;
eliminating the ability of stockholders to call a special meeting of stockholders;
establishing the state of Delaware as the sole forum for certain legal actions against the Company, its officers and directors; and
establishing advance notice requirements for nominations for election to the board of directors or for proposing matters that can be acted upon at stockholder meetings.                                    

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In addition, we are subject to Section 203 of the Delaware General Corporation Law, which generally prohibits a Delaware corporation from engaging in any of a broad range of business combinations with an interested stockholder for a period of three years following the date on which the stockholder became an interested stockholder, unless such transactions are approved by our board of directors. This provision could have the effect of delaying or preventing a change in control, whether or not it is desired by or beneficial to our stockholders. Further, other provisions of Delaware law may also discourage, delay or prevent someone from acquiring us or merging with us.
ITEM 2. UNREGISTERED SALES OF EQUITY SECURITIES AND USE OF PROCEEDS
Recent Sales of Unregistered Securities
None.
ITEM 3. DEFAULTS UPON SENIOR SECURITIES
None.
ITEM 4. MINE SAFETY DISCLOSURES
Not applicable.
ITEM 5. OTHER INFORMATION
On October 1, 2015, we provided written notice to BMR-John Hopkins Court LLC, or BMR, of our election to early terminate the certain lease agreement between us and BMR, dated March 19, 2010 and as amended as of January 26, 2011, or the Original BMR Lease.  This lease included approximately 21,500 square feet of office and laboratory space in San Diego, California, and provided for an early termination right after the 60th month of the lease, provided at least 9 months prior written notice.  The effective date of termination for the Original BMR Lease will be June 30, 2016. Our monthly base rent under the Original BMR Lease will be $3.19 per square foot over the duration of the remaining lease term.  Prior to our election to early terminate, the Original BMR Lease was set to expire in June 2017.  We will not incur any material early termination penalties as a result of our termination of the Original BMR Lease.
In addition, we entered into certain lease agreements between us and BMR, dated February 27, 2012, November 19, 2012 and February 21, 2013, respectively, or the Expanded BMR Lease.  These lease agreements included approximately 7,500 additional square feet of office and laboratory space in San Diego, California, but do not provide for an early termination.  Our monthly base rent under the Expanded BMR Lease will be approximately $3.35 per square foot over the duration of the remaining lease term, and will expire in June 2017. 
We elected to terminate the Original BMR Lease as a result of our entry into a new lease agreement with Walton Torrey Owner B, L.L.C. in July 2015, for the lease of approximately 59,000 square feet of office and laboratory space at 10614 Science Center Drive, San Diego, California.  In conjunction with this new lease agreement, we received $1.4 million from Walton Torrey Owner, B, L.L.C. in August 2015 for costs associated with the relocation of our corporate headquarters.



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ITEM 6. EXHIBITS
For a list of exhibits filed with this quarterly report on Form 10-Q, refer to the exhibit index.

SIGNATURES
Pursuant to the requirements of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, the registrant has duly caused this report to be signed on its behalf by the undersigned thereunto duly authorized.
 
 
Regulus Therapeutics Inc.
Date: November 5, 2015
By:
 
/s/ Paul C. Grint
 
 
 
Paul C. Grint, M.D.
 
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
 
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
 
Date: November 5, 2015
By:
 
/s/ David L. Szekeres
 
 
 
David L. Szekeres
 
 
 
Chief Business Officer and General Counsel
 
 
 
(Principal Financial Officer)



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EXHIBIT INDEX  
Exhibit
Number
  
Description
 
 
3.1
  
Amended and Restated Certificate of Incorporation of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on October 11, 2012).
 
 
3.2
  
Amended and Restated Bylaws of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 3.1 to the Registrant’s Current Report on Form 8-K, filed with the SEC on December 5, 2014).
 
 
4.1
  
Reference is made to Exhibits 3.1 and 3.2.
 
 
4.2
  
Form of Common Stock Certificate of the Registrant (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 4.1 to the Registrant’s Registration Statement on Form S-1, as amended (File No. 333-183384), originally filed with the SEC on August 17, 2012).
 
 
10.1
  
Office Lease by and between the Registrant and Walton Torrey Owner B, L.L.C., dated July 31, 2015 (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 10.2 in the Registrant's Quarterly Report on Form 10-Q, filed with the SEC on August 5, 2015).
 
 
10.2
 
Regulus Therapeutics Inc. Inducement Plan and Form of Stock Option Grant Notice, Stock Option Agreement and Notice of Exercise thereunder (incorporated by reference to Exhibit 99.1 in the Registrant's Registration Statement on Form S-8 (File No. 333-206511), filed with the SEC on August 21, 2015).
 
 
31.1
  
Certification of the Principal Executive Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
 
31.2
  
Certification of the Principal Financial Officer pursuant to Rule 13a-14(a) or 15d-14(a) of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934.
 
 
32.1*
  
Certification of the Principal Executive Officer and the Principal Financial Officer pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002.
 
 
101.INS
  
XBRL Instance Document.
 
 
101.SCH
  
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Schema Document.
 
 
101.CAL
  
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Calculation Linkbase Document.
 
 
101.DEF
  
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Definition Linkbase Document.
 
 
101.LAB
  
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Label Linkbase Document.
 
 
101.PRE
  
XBRL Taxonomy Extension Presentation Linkbase Document.
 
*
These certifications are being furnished solely to accompany this quarterly report pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, and are not being filed for purposes of Section 18 of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended, and are not to be incorporated by reference into any filing of the Registrant, whether made before or after the date hereof, regardless of any general incorporation language in such filing.

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50


Exhibit 31.1

CERTIFICATION OF PRINCIPAL EXECUTIVE OFFICER
PURSUANT TO SECTION 302 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002

I, Paul C. Grint, M.D., certify that:

1. I have reviewed this quarterly report on Form 10-Q of Regulus Therapeutics Inc.;

2. Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which such statements were made, not misleading with respect to the period covered by this report;

3. Based on my knowledge, the financial statements, and other financial information included in this report, fairly present in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the registrant as of, and for, the periods presented in this report;

4. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) and internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13(a)-15(f) and 15(d)-15(f))for the registrant and have:

a. designed such disclosure controls and procedures, or caused such disclosure controls and procedures to be designed under our supervision, to ensure that material information relating to the registrant, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to us by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which this report is being prepared;

b. designed such internal control over financial reporting, or caused such internal control over financial reporting to be designed under our supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

c. evaluated the effectiveness of the registrant’s disclosure controls and procedures and presented in this report our conclusions about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures, as of the end of the period covered by this report based on such evaluation; and

d. disclosed in this report any change in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the registrant’s most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting; and

5. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I have disclosed, based on our most recent evaluation of internal control over financial reporting, to the registrant’s auditors and the audit committee of the registrant’s board of directors (or persons performing the equivalent functions):

a. all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the registrant’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and

b. any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
 
 
Date: November 5, 2015
 
/s/ Paul C. Grint
 
 
Paul C. Grint, M.D.
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
 
(Principal Executive Officer)





Exhibit 31.2

CERTIFICATION OF PRINCIPAL FINANCIAL OFFICER
PURSUANT TO SECTION 302 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002

I, David L. Szekeres certify that:

1. I have reviewed this quarterly report on Form 10-Q of Regulus Therapeutics Inc.;

2. Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material fact or omit to state a material fact necessary to make the statements made, in light of the circumstances under which such statements were made, not misleading with respect to the period covered by this report;

3. Based on my knowledge, the financial statements, and other financial information included in this report, fairly present in all material respects the financial condition, results of operations and cash flows of the registrant as of, and for, the periods presented in this report;

4. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I are responsible for establishing and maintaining disclosure controls and procedures (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13a-15(e) and 15d-15(e)) and internal control over financial reporting (as defined in Exchange Act Rules 13(a)-15(f) and 15(d)-15(f))for the registrant and have:

a. designed such disclosure controls and procedures, or caused such disclosure controls and procedures to be designed under our supervision, to ensure that material information relating to the registrant, including its consolidated subsidiaries, is made known to us by others within those entities, particularly during the period in which this report is being prepared;

b. designed such internal control over financial reporting, or caused such internal control over financial reporting to be designed under our supervision, to provide reasonable assurance regarding the reliability of financial reporting and the preparation of financial statements for external purposes in accordance with generally accepted accounting principles;

c. evaluated the effectiveness of the registrant’s disclosure controls and procedures and presented in this report our conclusions about the effectiveness of the disclosure controls and procedures, as of the end of the period covered by this report based on such evaluation; and

d. disclosed in this report any change in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting that occurred during the registrant’s most recent fiscal quarter that has materially affected, or is reasonably likely to materially affect, the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting; and

5. The registrant’s other certifying officer and I have disclosed, based on our most recent evaluation of internal control over financial reporting, to the registrant’s auditors and the audit committee of the registrant’s board of directors (or persons performing the equivalent functions):

a. all significant deficiencies and material weaknesses in the design or operation of internal control over financial reporting which are reasonably likely to adversely affect the registrant’s ability to record, process, summarize and report financial information; and

b. any fraud, whether or not material, that involves management or other employees who have a significant role in the registrant’s internal control over financial reporting.
 
 
 
 
Date: November 5, 2015
 
/s/ David L. Szekeres
 
 
David L. Szekeres
 
 
Chief Business Officer and General Counsel
 
 
(Principal Financial Officer)






Exhibit 32.1

CERTIFICATION PURSUANT TO 18 U.S.C. SECTION 1350,
AS ADOPTED PURSUANT TO
SECTION 906 OF THE SARBANES-OXLEY ACT OF 2002

In connection with the quarterly report of Regulus Therapeutics Inc. (the “Company”) on Form 10-Q for the quarter ended September 30, 2015 as filed with the Securities and Exchange Commission on the date hereof (the “Report”), I, Paul C. Grint, M.D., President and Chief Executive Officer and I, David L. Szekeres, Chief Business Officer and General Counsel and principal financial officer, certify, pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350, as adopted pursuant to Section 906 of the Sarbanes-Oxley Act of 2002, that, to my knowledge:

(1) The Report fully complies with the requirements of Section 13(a) or 15(d), as applicable, of the Securities Exchange Act of 1934, as amended; and

(2) The information contained in the Report fairly presents, in all material respects, the financial condition and results of operations of the Company.
 
 
 
 
Date: November 5, 2015
 
/s/ Paul C. Grint
 
 
Paul C. Grint, M.D.
 
 
President and Chief Executive Officer
 
 
(Principal Executive Officer)
 
 
Date: November 5, 2015
 
/s/ David L. Szekeres
 
 
David L. Szekeres
 
 
Chief Business Officer and General Counsel
 
 
(Principal Financial Officer)

The foregoing certification is being furnished solely pursuant to 18 U.S.C. Section 1350 and is not being filed as part of the Report or as a separate disclosure document.